There’s a reason the History Channel has produced hundreds of documentaries about Hitler but only a few about Dwight D. Eisenhower. Bad guys (and gals) are eternally fascinating. Behind the Bastards dives in past the Cliffs Notes of the worst humans in history and exposes the bizarre realities of their lives. Listeners will learn about the young adult novels that helped Hitler form his monstrous ideology, the founder of Blackwater’s insane quest to build his own Air Force, the bizarre lives of the sons and daughters of dictators and Saddam Hussein’s side career as a trashy romance novelist.
Thu, 07 Jan 2021 11:00
Part Two: The Population Control Movement
Hey, Robert here. It's been like two months since I had LASIK and I'm still seeing 2020. All I had to do was go in for a consultation, then go in for a maybe 10 minute procedure and then my eyes have been great ever since. You know, I healed up wonderfully. It was very simple, couldn't have been a better experience. So if you want to explore LASIK plus I can't recommend it enough. They have over 20 years experience in the industry and they performed more than two million treatments right now if you want to try getting LASIK plus you can get $1000 off of your surgery when you're treated in September, that's $500. Of per eye, just visitmylasikoffer.com to schedule your free consultation. Hello, I'm Erica Kelly from the podcast Southern Fried true crime. And if you want to go from podcast fan to podcast host, do what I did and check out spreaker from iheart. I was working in accounting and hating it. Then after just 18 months of podcasting with Spreaker, I was able to quit my day job. Follow your podcasting dreams. Let's breaker handle the hosting, creation, distribution, and monetization of your podcast. Go to spreaker.com. That's spreaker.com. Hey there, it's Ebony Monet, your co-host for the San Diego Zoo's Amazing Wildlife podcast. In this special episode, we're speaking with Doctor Jane Goodall about the fascinating journey that led to her impactful behavioral discoveries on chimpanzees. It wasn't until one of the chimpanzees began to lose his fear of me, but I began to really make discoveries that actually shook the scientific world. Listen to amazing wildlife on the iHeartRadio app or wherever you get your podcasts. It's the podcast that it is. This is the podcast that it is, not the one it's not. I'm Robert Evans behind the ******** part two of our singing intro. I'll never do that again. Yeah. I'm so sorry. I liked it. No, I feel like I'm getting all of the treats right now between the appropriate intro and then the singing intro, which you say you can do neither one of these again. I no, never. Next episode I'm gonna introduce by just shouting out the name of a famous ethnic cleansing. And then yeah, it's gonna be very bad. But this time you got a song. Of course. Our guest today in part two of our Population Control episode as in part One is Samantha McVeigh of Stuff. Your mom never told you. Samantha never told you stuff. Mom never told you. Yeah. No. You and my mom specifically. Yeah. Yeah, 2. How are you doing, Samantha? Has has life changed radically for you since part one? Well, I did go visit my dog, who I do put her away during recordings because she is a very loud Barker. But yeah, so, you know, that always makes me a little happier. That's good. Yeah. It's always good to see dogs. I don't remove Anderson because I have separation anxiety, but I feel like Anderson so much better behaved than Peaches. Peaches is just kind of allowed. Just wait for somebody to get a package delivered. She hates the package delivery piece. She's like, she's like, is it for me? Yeah, no, **** you, right? Sanderson has that in common with Jeff Bezos. There you go. Wait, is Anderson making just as much money for every package being delivered, too? And they've been holding $32,000 a second *** ** * *****. Yeah. And she does not share a dime of it. It's it's very frustrating. Very greedy dog I have. Yeah. No. She has so many jet skis that she can't even use. You gotta make that bank, do you? You do you, Anderson? Speaking of making that bank, not at all. Speaking of making that bank, Speaking of population control, when we left off our long winding story about the dalkon shield and the population control movement, we had gotten to Margaret Sanger. Have you heard of, does that name ring a bell to you, Samantha? Yeah, of course we have kind of mentioned her previous, previous episodes with previous a little bit, yeah. Yeah, she's, you know, again, kind of seen as the founder of Planned Parenthood, at least the organizations that became it, and popularizer of the term birth control. And in many ways, Margaret was a bridge between the eugenics movement, which was fundamentally racist, and the population control movement, which was usually racist but not necessarily racist. It's actually a much more complicated kind of terrible. Margaret was not a eugenicist in the Nazi way. She supported birth control, access for everybody, including the kind of white people that you kind of assumed she felt were a superior race. She was comfortable talking to fascists. In her 1938 autobiography, she wrote. Always to me, any aroused group was a good group, and therefore I accepted an invitation to talk to the women's branch of the Ku Klux Klan at Silver Lake, New Jersey. One of the weirdest experiences I had in lecturing. So she did talk to the KKK. There are pictures that will claim to be her with the KKK. They're not her. There's no picture of that meeting, but she did give a speech to a women's KKK group. And you can find a lot online about Sanger's racism. It's a very frustrating subject to research because she definitely was problematic. But also her status as founding mother of the Safe Contraception movement in the US has made her the target of a bunch of disingenuous right wingers who want to paint Planned Parenthood and birth control as part of a racist plot to wipe out black people. And that is not true. Wasn't true of Margaret Sanger, to be honest. She did embark on something called the ***** Project, and that is a not a great thing to call anything like, yeah. Woo, but it was not what you might assume it was. It was an effort to spread education and access to birth control in black communities, particularly throughout the South. The reality of the project is complex. Sanger and her colleagues did deliberately appeal to white racists in their attempts to get funding for the project. I'm going to quote from a write up by New York University here. Sanger Reinhart and Sanger secretary Florence Rose drafted a report on birth control and the ***** skillfully using language that appealed to both eugenicists fearful of unchecked black fertility and progressives. Committed to shepherding African Americans into middle class culture. The report stated that ******* present the great problem of the South as they are the group with the greatest economic, health, and social problems, and outlined a practical birth control program geared toward a population characterized as largely illiterate and that still breed carelessly and disastrously. A line borrowed from a June 1932 birth Control review article by WEB Dubois. So. Again. Very problematic. Also quoting WB Dubois. Yeah, and it's it was not. Again, this is framed modern in modern times by usually like right wing, anti birth control people as like evidence of her racism. The ***** Project was very popular with black community leaders at the time and it would be unfair to frame it as an act of genocide. Sanger wrote repeatedly of the importance of bringing in black doctors, stating at one point, I do not believe that this project should be directed or run by white medical men, which is good if you're going to do a healthcare project like. Focused on the black community like that, that that shows like she she was not like she was capable of understanding like what was necessary in order to actually reach people in 1939 now. So I guess, yeah, yeah. In 1939, she argued in a letter that black ministers needed to be heavily involved in the project in order to gain the trust of their communities. We do not want word to go out that we want to exterminate the ***** population. And the minister is the man who can straighten out that idea if it ever occurs to any of their more rebellious members. Again, some problematic language there, but also like, there's no evidence she was actually going in for genocide because she was, again doing the same thing with white people. She was a birth control across the board advocate, right? She wanted everyone to have more access to contraceptives. There are people on the right, like Dinesh D'souza, who will spread wildly untrue claims about Sanger like that she called Black People human weeds and a menace to civilization, and there is no evidence of this. Sanger's own legacy contains enough problematic facts without making up lies. She was a eugenicist, and she wrote in 1923 that birth control does not mean contraception indiscriminately practiced. It means the release and cultivation of the better elements in our society, and the gradual suppression, elimination, and eventual extinction of defective stocks, those human weeds who threaten the blooming of the finest flowers of American civilization. So she did call people human weeds, but she wasn't referring to black people. She was referring more to mentally challenged people, more to people with like, who are prone to diseases. And that's bad. Like, that's really bad. But she was not like a for exterminating everything but white people. She was for exterminating people she considered unhealthy, or at least exterminating them from the gene pool, which is, again, bad. But let's be accurate about the kind of bad it is, you know? Yeah, we don't need to make it anymore. Yeah. Criminal. I don't know how to say it because it's not flowery that it's, you know, it's bad. It's bad. It's already bad. She didn't wanna make humanity better by wiping out black people. She wanted to make black people and white people better by wiping out folks who had what she considered to be like bad qualities through selective breeding. And that's really terrible. Also to classify for herself what those bad qualities are. Yes, she gets to make that up. Yeah. Perfect. Yeah, that is bad. But like, it's not the kind of bad, like, again, because. They tried to frame it like, no, the, the, the, the Progressives have always been trying to wipe out black people. Like, that's not what she was doing. We don't need that. And this information, she was just a bad person. She was. She was. There's plenty that's bad about her. Yeah, like, let's be intellectually honest, when we condemn someone. She also stated during another speech, I believe now, immediately there should be national sterilization for certain dysgenic types of our population who are being encouraged to breed and would die out where the government not feeding them. You know that's bad. But again, it's the kind of like, part of why they like to try to frame her baldness as something different is because if you're accurate about it, you can find a ******** of Republicans who say the say the poor should starve, right? Like the people who can't work on their own. You can find Jordan Peterson talking about, like, how terrifying it is that some people aren't intelligent enough to be in the military and like, say, like, because. So what do we do with those people? Like, that's a really, like, what Margaret Sanger was saying back then is still common today. People dress it up a little bit more. Kind of. So the COVID things like, yeah, that's fine, they're already, they're already problems if they die. So it's it's just they're unproductive. Yeah, they're unproductive. They're on the government dole. Yeah, exactly. Yeah, she just she was bad. She just was not the kind of bad people like D'souza like to paint her as. And in fact a lot of progressive black leaders at the time liked Margaret Sanger and what she was trying to do. In one 1939 letter to doctor CJ Gamble of Procter and Gamble fame, she urged him to get over his resistance to hiring a full time ***** physician. As quote, the colored ******* can get closer to their own members and more or less lay their cards on the table, which means they're ignorant superstitions and doubt. And again, she's also, she's number one, saying that black people are. Written superstitious, which is bad, but also saying that like, no, you get educated black people to talk to them about birth control. So again, she's a problematic person, but not what D'souza likes to paint her as. She was very paternalistic in her dealings with black people. Obviously that is extremely clear from reading anything about her, but her own letters and correspondence don't show she wanted to eliminate groups of people other than like she wanted to eliminate groups of people, I guess, but not this, that the way that is portrayed. In 1946 she wrote that quote. The ***** race has reached a place in history. And every possible effort should be made to have every ***** child count as a valuable contribution to the future of America's ***** parents, like all parents, must create the next generation from strength, not from weakness, from health, not from despair. See, it's complicated here, especially since one of the things historians who are honest will point out is that if you're judging people by the standards of the time. Margaret Sanger was woke for her period of time. Like, she had enlightened views on race relations right. For the time, right? Yeah. And you got some kind of equality and understanding that the the way to talk to people is not by telling them what to do, but to actually include them, I guess. Yeah, exactly, exactly. To include them in, to include their community and to like, yeah, again, everything is bad back then, and it's still bad now. I mean, it was even worse then. I guess in that standard and that time standard, she was seen as progressive and that letter player as again like the 80s when they stopped saying yeah things as well, wow, yeah, she was better on race relations than most white people of her social class in that time because her actual thing wasn't race as much as it was eliminating people she thought weren't intelligent enough, people who were poor and thus unintelligent. Like that was the kind of people that Margaret Sanger wanted to wipe out. Yeah. He just wanted you know, cause to kill off a certain other group. It's it's fine. Everything's yeah it's it's fine. Yeah. She yeah. So it it's yeah I'm gonna quote now from a write up in the Journal of Past and present that kind of points out the the actual kind of eugenicist Margaret Sanger was. She argued that contraception was not merely a personal choice, but a public good, indeed a panacea for social problems for the unfit. It was a duty. And Sanger became convinced that states had to intervene when necessary to prevent their propagation. Her movement would thus court government repression to gain visibility and sympathy for the cause of liberating. Individuals from unwanted births while striving to win state support for top down programs to shape populations. Sanger herself felt that she never had a country and instead devoted her life to the movement. For her, birth control was a secular faith that would advance peace between peoples by reducing Malthusian pressures and depriving militant nationalists of cannon fodder. O that is interesting to me because that's why she's kind of the founder of the population control movement, and that's where it splits from eugenics, because she's not talking about, like, I want the white race to succeed. She's talking about I want to engineer humanity, and birth control is the way to do that. And I'm, you know, she, above all else, frightened of overpopulation and particularly overpopulation of poor people. Right. That's kind of her thing. So, yeah, in the 1930s and 40s, obviously, eugenics was still very big. Various fascist states adopted ******** racist eugenicist policies. Hitler's policies were based heavily on a different state and federal policies in the United States that had been aimed at breeding and immigration restrictions of certain groups of people. Hitler described the invasion of Eastern Europe and its subsequent genocides as the planned control of population movements to restore the numbers and qualities of the Aryan race. Japan's imperial government, on the other hand, said itself to the task of purifying what they called the Yamato race now, when all of the dust had settled from World War 2, the horrors of the death. It's proved to be the nail in the coffin for eugenics as a worldwide movement. Obviously, remnants of eugenics policies remain in the US for a frightening long time, and one can argue even into today in some ways. But no longer was eugenic thinking something you could advocate openly without drawing nasty comparisons to Nazis. So the Nazis kind of kill eugenics as a respectable movement because of, you know, the death gifts. Like people see where that leads, but population control like this is part of why, what's kind of like brilliant? About what Sanger and other population control advocates do when they split from the eugenics movement. Population control only gets more popular after World War 2. Margaret Sanger herself even pointed to Nazi extermination centers as evidence of the quote, widespread devaluation of human lives that was caused when people didn't have birth control. Like because basically there were so many useless people that it made everyone's life worth less. And that's what made these, these massacres possible. And instead if we had just sterilized people with quote. This genetic qualities of body and mind, these death camps, would never have become a thing. That's the whole reach. Like, that's yeah, picking the wrong lesson, markhams like you had to play in order to justify why your cause could be better than this bad cause, but because it wasn't happening. It happened. Yeah, yeah, it did. It's and it's like, that's a bad way to explain. It's it's all bad. It's very bad. Yeah, so Sanger and her fellow travelers believed that intelligence was the most important qualities to select for idiots they felt should be discouraged from breeding. Obviously there's a lot of problems with this, but the chief one is that dumb and poor were synonyms for people like Margaret Sanger, and they always have been for the population control. When they talk about wanting to, like, you know, stop unintelligent people from breeding, they're talking about poor people, right? What they really mean is uneducated or not educated to my standards. Aldous Huxley, in 1948, cited research that suggested an inverse. Correlation between intelligence and fertility. Basically. Huxley was pointing out that, like, intelligent people have less children, and he called for a world population policy. And in this, Huxley was making the same argument that Mike Judge did in the movie Idiocracy. Which is why I find that movie problematic, because the whole the fundamental idea like Idiocracy is everything Margaret Sanger was talking about. If we let dumb people breed, the world will become stupid. Which isn't how genetics works, but yeah, it's it's bad. It's frustrating to me. Like, the degree to which people like right now is just, like, Idiocracy, and it's like, no, it's not like these people are. Yeah, anyway, very frustrated. I feel like the whole concept of who is an idiot and who is it is. Problematic in itself, like, I don't. Yeah. And it's part of, you know, honestly. Like the fact that there's so many folks who are like, you know, quote UN quote, coastal elites who, like, declare folks in the Deep South to be dumb because of, like, the way they talk or the differences in their education is part of what like has right. Makes those people easier to recruit by folks who are trying to take advantage of them. It's very, it's all very frustrating. It's it's. Very frustrating, but you know what's not frustrating? This is frustrating. It's not time for an ad pivot. I'm just going to keep talking about racism. Yeah, sorry. In the late night, that was a little bit of a fake out there. You see that? That was good. Just like waiting. What are we doing here? You're like, no, we're gonna is there a second part of this segment that I didn't know? I feel like gonna dive right back into bigot Aldous Huxley. So in the late 1940s and early 50s, thinkers like Huxley began to panic over the thought of a population explosion, which they considered to be an existential threat on the level of a nuclear war. Because the poorest nations on Earth, the global S, had the highest populations and most rapid rates of population growth. This is where population control advocates focus their efforts. So again, we're not racist. We're not trying to call certain races, but the poorer having the most babies and we want to stop that. And also all of the poor live in these specific countries and they're not white, right? Right, right. No, it's not about you. It's not about race. Yeah. In 1958, yeah. Yeah. In 1958, Dwight D Eisenhower called a meeting of his National Security Council to discuss foreign aid. He told them they they neglected what he viewed as the biggest threat to their future, even more dire than the Cold War. And I'm gonna quote from historian Matthew Connolly here, who's quoting someone who is in that NSC meeting with Eisenhower and all our discussions of the problem of underdeveloped countries and the kind of assistance which we could effectively provide them. We had not yet faced up to what was really the most. Serious problem, namely that of exploding population growths, as far as he could see, continued the president. The only solution to this problem throughout the world was finding an effective 2 cent contraceptive. Eisenhower thought that something drastic had to be done to solve this problem, though he certainly did not know how to get started on this solution, and he furthermore could not himself get it started. So Eisenhower did form a presidential Commission on US foreign aid and tasked them with the goal of finding ways for the US to help poorer nations reduce fertility rates. In an NSC meeting, he confided to his men that overpopulation was, quote, a constant worry to him, and from time to time reduced him to despair. So he likes is the basics. I've been trying to bring me in basis for Thanos. That's what I'm going to do with this. OK. Yeah. I'm leaving it in now. I will say, though, Eisenhower also doesn't think that the President can do anything about this. He thinks that that's like, not the job of the federal government to provide contraceptives. So he he thinks it's critical and important, but he also thinks that, like, I can't do this or have the government do this because that would be wrong. Which, I don't know, seems weird to me. Yeah. Around the same time, population control advocates had started pushing the UN, which was new at the time, and the US government to distribute contraceptives in poor countries as a way to curb birth rates. But I refuse to consider this stating. I cannot imagine anything more emphatically a subject that is not a proper political or government activity or function or responsibility. Once he left office, Eisenhower became the honorary Co chair of the Planned Parenthood Federation of America, right alongside Harry Truman. Yeah, I bet you didn't know that Harry Truman and Eisenhower were like chairman of the play of Planned Parenthood. I'm having so many questions right now like that. Republicans used to be very different. I mean, again, we talked about this in the episode we just recorded. But like, Barry Goldwater, who was like seen as the first Trump, like, was a pro abortion access advocate at the end of his life. So Republicans have really gone off the deep end recently. But it is worth pointing out how recent they're like, antipathy to birth control and stuff is right. I mean, to be fair, the difference today seems to be that they're more worried about, you know, people being born as to whether or not they die later as they're OK with dying later part now they've always been because Dwight Eisenhower. It's a big murdering people advocate. What a title. Yeah. Yeah. I mean, in in fairness to Ike, most of the people he murdered were Nazis. So, like, you gotta give him some credit, but he killed a lot of people who were Nazis. We could talk about the Congo and ****. Yeah. Yeah. I think that was under him. And like, you know, Korea. Well, no, that was trimming, I guess. Yeah. Yeah. Yeah, yeah. A lot of the Cold War started. Yeah. I mean, Eisenhower. Plane was under Truman. Right now it's complicated because he is one of the only presidents, maybe the only whoever, like directly denounce the military industrial complex. And he did it right when it was like starting off. He was like, this is happening and it's bad and it's going to destroy our entire country if we let it. But also he's who it got started under and he let it happen. And then kind of on his way out was like, oh, by the way, I left you all with a big old problem. So I don't know, complicated figure. Eisenhower still is one of the best presidents we ever had, but all of our presidents are criminals. So. You know, we do that with quotes. Yeah, yeah, quotation marks around best. So, yeah, once he left office, Ike winds up as the honorary Co chair of Planned Parenthood. And in this position, he turned his focus to lambasting welfare programs, including federally funded birth control, which has just started to be a thing. His issue was that the United States was spending money with one hand to slow up population growth among responsible families, and with the other providing financial incentives for increasing production by the ignorant feeble minded. Or lazy. Oh. Now that's fun to me. Not racial talk at all. No, no. What's fun about that is like, obviously Dwight was not a Nazi because he helped destroy the Nazis. But also feeble minded is almost directly the translation of one of the terms that the Germans used to justify the eugenics programs that turned into the Holocaust, right? You know, useless eaters was a less polite term the Germans had for that. So the Holocaust started not with the extermination of the Jews. Of other races, but with the extermination of, again, what we're called useless eaters. And this a lot has its roots a lot in so like a million Germans starved to death during World War One because the British blockade them and Germany cannot feed itself, which is like one of the things. That is why Hitler invaded Eastern Europe, why he wanted to get Ukraine in particular. And so one of the things Hitler wanted to do when the Nazi thinkers wanted to do was get rid of all these quote UN quote useless eaters, because they were afraid that when Germany was blockaded again and the inevitable next war these people would use up. Like precious food stores that working people could be. And so the Holocaust started with the gassing of physically handicapped people who were seen as, again, useless eaters. Like, that's where it got started before they gassed people on a racial level, they were gassing the disabled. So wow, cool stuff. And again, Eisenhower's rhetoric directly mirrors what the Nazis were saying in the early period of their time and power. Which is cool. Very cool. Such a delight. And good. Yeah, a delight. Delight, Robert. You know what else is a delight? You know what doesn't advocate for the extermination of large segments of the population? Perhaps the products and services that sponsor this very podcast, that's true. They do not. They absolutely don't. Every time we get a new sponsor, we send them an e-mail that says genocide with a question mark and they always respond to no and then we're good to go. Felt like it was like shrug shrug emoji. No, no, we only accept a hard no, we are OK. That's one of our lines. Yeah, that's yeah, that's that's why we are not sponsored by Procter and Gamble, because they gave us the shrug emoji and we were like, that's not enough, that's not enough. IG Farben had the same response, which you know. Shocking from the makers of Zyklon B. Anyway, here's the ads. Mint Mobile offers premium wireless starting at just 15 bucks a month. And now for the plot twist. Nope, there isn't one. 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Visit betterhelp.com behind today to get 10% off your first month. That's better, HEL. Key.com/behind better help calm slash behind this fall on revisionist history. Is there anything that we haven't talked about or or? Vascular like to add that seems relevant. You should have asked me why I'm missing fingers on my left hand. A story about sacrifice. I think his suffering drove him to try to alleviate suffering. And the shocking discovery I made where I faced the consequences of writing a book I thought would help people? Isn't that funny? It's not funny at all. It's depressing. Very depressing. Revisionist history is back with more. Listen to revisionist history on the iHeartRadio app or wherever you get your podcasts. I've never seen less enthusiasm for a great idea in my life. Ohh, we're back. So Dwight D Eisenhower again was not a Nazi, but his rhetoric echoed Nazi rhetoric, which is a recurring problem for what we call population control advocates. Like ravenholt the guy who just say just because you're not a Nazi doesn't mean you're not a racist *******. Yeah, the Nazis were mostly. The Nazis were mostly destroyed by other racists. Just less racists. Yeah, like it was a bunch of. The men who landed at Normandy were like, well, I don't like the Jews either, but what you're doing isn't OK like that. Like, let's let's be honest about it, right? Really? Yeah. You read some of the **** George Patton wrote about Jewish people while he was beating the Nazis, and it's like, yeah, he was pretty ******* racist. Perfect, yeah. So yeah, Matthew. Anyway, the point I'm getting to here is that population control advocates, well, not Nazis, often said **** that sounded like Nazi rhetoric. Matthew Connolly, great historian, writes quote all population control movements tended to diagnose social and political problems as pathologies with a biological basis. All shared the idea that society should reproduce themselves by design, even if that meant controlling how people disposed of their own bodies, and all looked at human beings not as individuals, but as populations. Which could be shaped through a combined force of politics and science. Not great thing to look at human beings as. Yeah. We're just shaking our head. All these things just coming into a combination of pretty, pretty much people are not people. Humanity does not exist, and people are just dirt. People aren't people, except for me and the people that I and, you know, 60 years ago, the people like me were white. But now people who aren't white can be people like me, as long as they're the kind of smart that I recognize as smart, right? And then they can. I am the supreme superior form of that human being. If you can acknowledge that, then yes, then we can all be white together. Perfect. I've been waiting for someone to tell me that. Oh my God, yeah. In the 1960s, population control advocates began to lobby the World Bank and the US Agency for International Development US aid, asking them for birth control programs in the global S they held out against this at first, largely out of fear of the political consequences, mainly because they were scared they would anger the Catholic Church. Which was then is now very against contraception. Now, this started to change under LBJ, who complained that he was, quote, not going to **** away foreign aid in nations where they refused to deal with their own population problems. One of the nice things about LBJ is he never really pulled his punches. I was going to say that's fairly direct. OK, yeah, OK, all right. Yeah. Now, near the end of the 1960s, USA, which made-up more than half of all foreign aid from the United States, began providing large scale assistance for birth control around the world in Bolivia, Bangladesh, South Korea. Pakistan, Thailand and Tunisia, more than 2/3 of national family planning budget came from foreign aid, maybe mainly USA and again at this point because, you know, South Korea is today one of the wealthier nations on the planet. At this point it's a war wracked country that's like barely getting out of a devastating conflict like they are. It is considered in the words of the white people time Third world at that point in time, which is why it's it's getting aid in that way. In 1965, Reimert Ravenholt took over US AIDS Office of Population. Under his auspices, it would grow from basically nothing to a multibillion dollar international crusade against overpopulation. Ravenholt was a true believer, as well as profoundly charming and well connected. Thanks to thanks to this, his office had no oversight whatsoever. He could spend the money allotted to him by Congress however he saw fit. Yeah, that's not a recipe for disaster at all. No, it's going to go great. This is going to be a good story. I love this. For Matthew Connolly quote. His preferred strategy was national inundation based on the idea that making contraceptives freely available, ideally at the very doorstep of consumers, could increase usage. Massive purchasing contracts of as many as 100 million monthly pill cycles also ensured that pharmaceutical companies would join in defending his growing budget and encourage corporate support for his organization when some of these US backed. Interceptors were siphoned off and resold. Ravenholt was unconcerned. This black market constituted a free distribution network. He also used NGO's to provide training and sterilization and distribute low cost abortion kits, even where abortion was illegal. Ravenholt strategy, according to a Population Council officer, was to make abortion so easy to perform and so widely used that it would be meaningless. When Raven Holt superiors tried to remove him, they found it was all but impossible. His supporters were too numerous. It sucks. Hmm. So he said easy and accessible, but not necessarily safe. Would that be exactly, yeah. So there's a lot of what he's doing that's fine, obviously. Like, I think everyone should have access to safe and cheap contraception everywhere in the world. Yeah, safe is key. And one of the things that Ravenholt is able to do in order to get as much content, because for ravenholt it's safe is not as important as numerous. What he wants is to stop as many babies being born as possible. Yeah, I'm just imagining he's just sending out. Packages of hangers. Yeah, no, he wouldn't. Yeah, yeah, he would have if he if he thought that that would have done it. But like, he would have preferred something that's easier to get people on, but may have some of the same consequences as using a hanger. Because people aren't gonna use the hanger, but people might take a pill that has also a horrible effect on it. Because again, so, yeah, we're going to get to that. This all brings us back around to the dalkon shield, because reinart ravenholt ray to his buddies, was the man who approved, AH, Robins, that pharmaceutical companies request for the US government to buy up all of the unsold millions of dalkon Shields and sell them in bulk to the global S Now, I want you to remember, to save money. Robins was selling these Shields in massive bulk packages of 1000 each, and they were unsterilized. They're always my favorite part of the whole thing. This is very wire hanger. Yeah, basically, yeah. This is very uncommon crab. Yeah, yeah, yeah. Crap. And the wire hanger isn't an abort or isn't a bacteria superhighway, so that's good, you know? So obviously selling unsterilized IUD's was very odd. IUD's were always sold sterile in the United States. US aid demanded an explanation as to why Robins was shipping them. Unsterilized and an employee for age Robbins wrote back that the Shields were being sold that way for the purpose of reducing price and thereby attaining wider use, and is intended for restricted sale to family planning support organizations who will limit their distribution to those countries commonly referred to as less developed. So USA was like, it worries us that these are unsterilized H. It says don't worry, that makes them cheaper, and we're only selling them to poor people. And was the response OK, cool. Thanks, man. Yeah, that's exactly what they said. Yeah, because again, right. Raven holds all about national inundation. He just wants as much contraception out there as possible and, like, consequences be damned. So he's fine with this. He's a good guy. Good dude, solid G, sort of 135. That's fine. It worked. I think it's rid of someone I don't think is smart because they don't read the same books that I read. Then it's all good. So great ship right here. So Robbins explained that medical practitioners in those countries were expected to sterilize Shields by soaking them in disinfectant. Now this was again, very uncommon. Normally you just get them sterilized and you wear sterile gloves and you insert them. Having people sterilize them introduces a potential for someone to **** ** and not sterilize them properly, which is why it's not the way you do something like an IUD in a contemporary write up of this Mother Jones noted quote. In the United States, according to private gynecologists we interviewed, the insertion of an IUD that had merely been soaked into disinfected before use would possibly be grounds for a malpractice suit. Robbins insists that the sterilization procedure it recommended was effective, but it is highly likely that few people ever read the instructions. The company attached only one set of instructions for each pack of 1000 Shields, and those were printed in only three languages, English, French, and Spanish, although the devices were destined for 42 countries, from Ethiopia to Malaysia. We're still only tin inserters were provided per 100 Shields Attica, measurably to the problem of infection. Oh well. So in my mind it really was like an IKEA level of instructions to it. Yeah, where you get 3 stick figures and they like, good luck, you know, I'll give you, I'll give IKEA credit. They generally, wherever they sell IKEA products, print them in the language most common in that country sometimes. Yeah, sure. I'm sure, yeah, it looks like a foreign language to me when I'm trying to put together, but it's mostly nonsense. But also, very few people put IKEA in IKEA furniture inside their bodies. I mean, I feel like that could be an IKEA furniture like that, yeah? Deal? Just say yeah, there'd be a bunch of extra IS&D's and G's to the name, but yeah, so. H Robbins also assured USA that actual medical professionals weren't needed to insert the Dalkon shield into patients. A lot of these devices were headed to rural family planning clinics, and the drug company insisted that staff without medical degrees were more than capable of handling the job. US aid pushed back in this case, too, noting that in the United States there have been numerous reports of adverse reactions from patients who had taken that who had had the dalkon shield inserted by doctors who weren't gynecologists. If MD's had trouble following the instructions, surely random aid. Workers who weren't even doctors and like the Ethiopian countryside world, also make mistakes. So H Robbins did what pharmaceutical giants do best. They commissioned a study that would show exactly what they needed it to show. Actually did a study. Or they they just lie. They paid for a study that showed what they needed. Yeah, and the study they paid for showed that paramedics could learn to reliably insert the dalkon shield in 1/2 hour. Wait, wait, of course they they said they could just insert it, or they could do it correctly and safely. They could correctly learn how to do it safely. In 1/2 hour, paramedics could cool, cool. Now number one, they paid for this study #2. Most of these aid workers, and again, ******* rural like Ethiopia are like like aid workers like that. A lot of them aren't paramedics or any other kind of medical professional, but some of them are still putting these things in people as we would like to talk about the fact that the white Girl from America. Claim to be a nurse who killed millions, like many orphans. Yeah, yeah, yeah. Like, doesn't need to be a doctor. Yeah, many orphans. Yeah, but that just happened recently. I'm sure that didn't happen back then. No, no, no. Well, actually, yeah. I mean, different things happened back then. It was usually more of a government thing. I don't know that it was. Anyway, we'll get into it. I'm just thinking, like, in general, if you want, why people to try to send help. This was one of those send help moments. Oh yeah. A ton of babies get killed by this. It's it's ******* aces. But that that hurts. Keep going. Yeah. Well, you know, so yeah, H Robbins like pays for this study and they're like, see, you could teach people to do it in 1/2 hour. We're not actually going to teach the people we sell these to to do it. We're just going to give them instructions they probably can't read. But potentially if they were paramedics and had a proper instructions, they could learn how to do it. And that's enough for USA to give it to be like, hell. Yeah. Cool. Yeah. Here's millions of dollars. So Ray Ravenholt gave the Dalkon shield his rubber stamp and suddenly. Hundreds of thousands of dalkon Shields, all paid for by the US Treasury, were out on their way to 42 different nations. This happened at the same time that a Planned Parenthood study revealed pregnancy rates in excess of 6% from dalkon shield insertion in places like Costa Rica and Yugoslavia, and nearly 15% in one Latin American country. So because they're not being put in right. So again, sometimes the the amount of unintended pregnancies with dalkon Shields in some places, like 15%, because the people putting them in don't know how to do it. And you have to remember that we're not just talking about unintended pregnancies here. Remember, the dalkon shield is a bacterial superhighway in the best of conditions. Yeah. And that's in. When it's sterile, right? Yeah. And patients in these poorer nations who are receiving unsterile Shields and having them inserted with unsterile applicators suffered from infections, miscarriages and death at vastly higher rates than what was seen in the United States. We do not know, and we'll never know the full toll from this because nobody bothered to take any sort of notes on it. Like, nobody gave a **** about how many people actually got hurt by this thing in these countries. We do, however, have some specific stories of individual victims to highlight the horror for mother. Jones quote when Maria Aquires woke up on the morning of June 5th, 1977, she was at first too drenched with sweat to feel the blood. They had warned her at the clinic that there might be some bleeding, but this was more than a period. Her skirt, the worn sheet, the mat were soaked through more than her after her oldest daughter's birth. When the midwife had at one point simply prayed dimly, Maria must have realized that the baby was already awake and fussing. He was still fussing an hour later when Maria's sister, summoned by the older children, came running in. Maria was no longer sweating because she died as a result of infection. Infection that her dalkon shield gave her. Yeah. And I'm wondering if, like, some of these numbers that they say it's effective, it's because they died. Yeah. Yeah. They were able to get pregnant. That works for Ray Raven Holtz. Yeah, exactly. Yeah. That's. Hey, stops the pregnancy. That's all that matters to Ray. Pregnant rat population control advocates like Ray Ravenholdt hidden, willing to look the other way at Unsterile medical devices implanted by qualified people. They were not particularly concerned by victims like Maria Aguas, as evidenced by the fact that neither US aid or any other international organization. Even tried to track down all the fatalities and injuries caused by the overseas importation of the Dalkon shield. The only thing that actually disturbed them was the evidence that the shield was ineffective as a birth control method because it was OK to endanger the lives of poor children, but it was not OK to risk them having more kids. We can't have more kids. Didn't do what we wanted. Oh, damn. Now, again, we don't have any sort of authoritative numbers on the number of deaths and injuries as a result of the millions of dalkon Shields imported to the global S author Morton Mintz estimates that quote shield. Related PID pelvic inflammatory infection killed hundreds, possibly thousands of women outside the United States. If the shield where in a third world country where there are no doctors, no antibiotics, becomes infected, she's going to die. And again, this is the 70s. Antibiotics are not as common as they are now, especially in places like Ethiopia, you know? Still, under Ravenholdt guidance, the name of the game for US aid was national inundation, and Iuds that worked 85 to 90% of the time were better than bringing more poor people into the world. As lawsuits against H Robin spun up in the United States, the company sent one of their employees on a tour of Asia to sell more Shields. In every place he stopped, the employee would be met by the local US aid population officer, who would assemble a group of local physicians for the Robbins employee to lecture and sell to when Robbins was finally forced to discontinue the product in 1974. USA Aid was left, in the words of a Mother Jones reporter holding the bag, or rather the bulk pack. They had no choice but to issue an international recall. We don't know how many women in isolated mountain villages across India and Guatemala and wherever else actually learned that the thing in their uterus had been recalled for being dangerously unsafe. Because, again, no one at age Robins or USA cared to find out it. It just was not important to them, the lack of communication already. And then that's how they do the recall. So I can't did we talk about whether or not the lifespan? So how long that's supposed to shield is supposed to last five years, which means a lot of these. Yeah. And and removal, again, because it spiked removal is a nightmare for people, too. It's actual surgical procedure, I'm saying. I think. Yeah, and people die from that as well. And again, the number, but probably thousands, probably a death toll of thousands worldwide. The Dalkon Shield was a major national story in the US, where it killed maybe a couple of dozen people, but it spread overseas, funded by U.S. tax dollars, was not well known. Mother Jones is the only outlet I have found who actually covered that part of the story during that time in any kind of detail, and they deserve a lot of credit for that. It is an excellent article. A 1985 article I found in the Washington Post, for example, didn't even mention that the Dalkon shield had been sold overseas. Mother? Yeah. Yeah. Why would you care? They're poor. They're poor. They're poor and they're not white. Who gives a ****? Yeah, ******* Ethiopia. Yeah, yeah. Mother Jones actually interviewed Ray Ravenholt in 1979 to ask why he had given the Seal of American Goodwill to this whole bloody endeavour. And the picture they painted him is bizarre and not very positive. And I'm going to read the description that that journalist wrote about meeting Ray. Oh no. In person he is a tall, affable Midwesterner with an engaging smile and a marked inability to sit still once he warms up to the subject at hand. No sooner had we gotten through the introductions than he bounded off to one corner of his spacious office and returned with his latest contraceptive enthusiasm, a plastic gun style laparoscopic device which when aimed through the vagina, shoots little plastic bands around the fallopian tubes, resulting in permanent sterilization. He demonstrated by placing 1 foot up on his chair and shooting the bands at his shoelace only. After he completed the simulated sterilization of his left foot, were we able to bring the subject round to the dalkon shield? Unbelievable. So he had this in his office as, like, a toy. He just keeps this little, like, ******* gun thing for wrapping up fallopian tubes, shoots it in his foot. To impress a journalist. For real, he's got to be a serial killer. He's a 10 Bundy maniac, right? There's no ******* way you didn't use this on a woman. Be like, hey, hey. I got something for you. Yeah. Tie your hands behind your back or let me show you something you. You're gonna love this. What the ****? Ray Raven hole. So, Mother Jones continues, and this is Ray Ravenholt speaking. They're quoting him. Robins? The company didn't know there was any problem with it in 1972, he insisted, which is not true. When we countered that AH Robins had been deluged with reports of adverse reactions by that time, ravenholt smiled patiently and explained. You don't really know anything until you have a very, very large number of people who have used it. You might have one kind of impression from 10,000 people. Another from 100,000. You might need a million. 10 million. Before you really know. So it's not till everybody's dead, then you actually you have to have 100% rating of whatever you've got wrong. If you've given it to 10,000 women and 2000 of them have horrible, horrible life altering reactions to it, you got to give it to another 10 million before you can really tell if it's dangerous. I mean, again, it's kind of like what we're going through with the pandemic. Bad? Come on, come on. 99% survival rate. Yeah, it's fine. It's only 250,000 people. That's not a big deal. When pressed, Ravenholt did eventually agree that US aid had heard some of the 10s of thousands of stories of septic pregnancies, infections and miscarriages that had flooded the US media by 1973. But he pivoted immediately from that to leaning forward with enthusiasm to tell the Mother Jones reporter his own pet theory about IUD induced pelvic infections. This is ray. Women who frequently change sexual partners have these intercurrent low grade infections. The IUD can't cause an infection. The body tolerates anything that's sterile. Wait, isn't that the same kind of argument about the rape? You know your body rejects that. Oh my God, what is happening? Because he knows the Dalkon Shields are being sent unsterilized, and that obviously not everybody is going to properly sterilize them. And also, because the data existed at this point, he knows that the dalkon shield is a magnet for infections by design. It's awesome stuff and when Mother Jones, this is my favorite part, when Mother Jones pointed out to him that the infections that he was blaming on promiscuity might be caused by the non sterile devices being exported by US aid, Ravenholt defended his agency shipping out unsterile dalkon Shields by pointing out that all the other IUD's they shipped out to poor people were supplied unsterile too. Oh, great. That's awesome. Good job, bro. Ohhh. OK. I love the again, the gymnastics that someone has to go through and be like, no, no, no, no, no. This is cool. And let me tell you, it's fine. It's fine. It's fine. It's fine. Nothing wrong. It's fine. Because we're always this irresponsible, right? And and, you know, before that, many people called us out, no one really, really talked about, like, they were here. Why are they talking about it? Why are we talking about it? Yeah, what's the problem? Let me show you my little toy. Yeah, let me show you my you want me to sterilize my foot again one more time. You know who won't sterilize your foot? Samantha. Oh God. Products and services that support this podcast, OK. This has gone, yeah. I don't know where I am anymore. Bad plug. Huh? Mint Mobile offers premium wireless starting at just 15 bucks a month. And now for the plot twist. Nope, there isn't one. Mint Mobile just has premium wireless from 15 bucks a month. There's no trapping you into a two year contract. You're opening the bill to find all these nuts fees. There's no luring you in with free subscriptions or streaming services that you'll forget to cancel and then be charged full price for none of that. For anyone who hates their phone Bill, Mint Mobile offers premium wireless for just $15.00 a month. Mint Mobile will give you the best rate whether you're buying one or for a family. And it meant. And we start at 2 lines. 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And the shocking discovery I made where I faced the consequences of writing a book I thought would help people. Isn't that funny? That's not funny at all. It's depressing. Very depressing. Revisionist history is back with more. Listen to revisionist history on the iHeartRadio app or wherever you get your podcasts. I've never seen less enthusiasm for a great idea in my life. Ah, we are back and just having a good old time. I'm crossing my legs inexplicably. So as sleazy as the justifications Ray Ravenholt gave to Mother Jones where he had to issue them. By 1979, Dalkon Shields were still in use around the world, and they were in the bodies of more than 440,000 people. Five years after H Robbins suspended sales of the device, medical practitioners in Pakistan, India and South Africa were still inserting dalkon Shields into new patients. It's pretty good stuff, deep, Mother Jones wrote at the time in 1979. It is impossible to know how frequently this is still taking place, but our own sources have told us of at least two cases. In Nairobi, Kenya, on the wall of the Family Planning Association Clinic, there is a poster advertising the Dalkon Shield. In early May 1979, a young woman patient at this clinic was offered, among other birth control options, at Dalkon Shield in Ottawa, Canada. Pierre Blaze, senior consultant to the Bureau of Medical Devices, told us the shield was being inserted as late as 1977. Two years after had been withdrawn to the US market, finally, yeah, Yep, Yep, finally. Neither ID nor even the FDA would have any way of stopping AH Robins from privately dumping its own unsold stock of dalkon Shields, if the company was of a mind to do so. And it was. In a recent interview, Robbins Attorney Franklin Tatum admitted to us that his client was still selling the devices through the first quarter of 1975, even as they were being recalled through ID and allegedly destroyed. So he was personal. He was still doing it, even though. Yeah, the company was still selling it even after they like they they were not only selling it through ID, they were selling it directly to other poorer nations while they were fighting court cases in the US and pulling it off of that market. And of course, nothing really happened to him. No, I wouldn't. I mean, the company got destroyed, but the people responsible for those decisions are millionaires and their kids are still millionaires. And probably funding Ben Shapiro where someone today? So great. So very good. Just cool ****. So good. So Ray Ravenholt had the power and influence to put a stop if to most if not all of this, but he chose not to, and the question why is easy to answer. Ray was a pretty open dude. In 1977, Ravenholt gave an interview to the Saint Louis Post Dispatch where he insisted that population explosions, unless stopped, would lead to revolutions. Population control, Ray explained, was necessary in order to maintain the normal operation of US commercial interests around the world without our trying to help these countries with their. Genomic and social development. The world would rebel against the strong US commercial presence. The self-interest thing is the compelling element. Self-interest. That's really fascinating. Honest. I mean, like, yeah, ridiculously honest. I just love that it all results in women dying. We kind of come off the women they're giving. They're making babies. Well, and specifically what he's saying here is we have to sterilize large chunks of the developing world, as they call it. The third world, the global S we have to sterilize these poor people because otherwise they're going to destroy capitalism like. There go yeah. The world will rebel against us. Commercial presence. If we don't reduce their populations, they're gonna realize that they were ******* them. Yeah, yeah, we are really screwing them over. So this is the best way to kill them. Kill them all? Yeah. Again, the bad guy is generally capitalism in the end. So. Most population control advocates supported a variety of methods to achieve their aims. Economic Development, healthcare, expanded women's rights. All of these can reduce family size. Ray Ravenholt preferred instead to focus on contraceptives and only contraceptives. Before the Dalkon shield rose to popularity, he'd done this by trying to flood the global S with hormonal birth control pills. These were sold over the counter in places like Bangladesh, with no doctor consultation required and precious little information about what the health consequences might be in Bangladesh. This caused what one reporter. Called a biological disaster quote, the average Bangladeshi woman weighs 92 pounds and suffers from chronic malnutrition. Even in 135 pound American woman, the pill is known to deplete the body's supply of vitamins, AB6D and folic acid, hence the special vitamins sold in the US as supplements to the pill. Furthermore, no less than 90% of the Bangladeshi women who accepted the pill were breastfeeding. According to a study by the International Planned Parenthood Federation, babies nursed by pill users grew at an average rate that was only 2/3 of that of babies. First, by non pill users, ending world hunger is the most common rationalization for the top down approach to population control. But in Bangladesh, AID was creating its own kind of chemically induced famine. ************* Jesus Christ. It's pretty bad. Kidding me. So a big part of what's happening here is that these birth control pills that USA had been handing out in Bangladesh had been judged safe for American women. And American women have are were much better fed, had much better nutrition, did not have the same kind of vitamin deficiencies that Bangladeshi women did. They were larger, like it. So obviously the same pill that works on them is going to be toxic to people who are smaller and who have. Yeah, it's just it's horrible. Essentially, they had to have supplements like that. Sit out. Because, of course, all that mattered was that they weren't having as many babies. That doesn't, however, maybe death. Sure. Let's do it this whatever. Yeah. And obviously, data in the US at this time already showed that high estrogen pills had more health consequences than low estrogen pills. And so in the US, birth control pills had switched over to low estrogen birth control pills. But that meant there were still millions of high estrogen birth control pills that, like, nobody in the US would buy. So obviously, Ray Raven, who bought them all and shipped them off to poor people. Of course we're gonna we're gonna hand them out somewhere. We gotta make fun of money. Somehow we can't waste this. Come on, come on. Yeah, and one of the most breathtakingly and ethical moments in the history of birth control. Marketers for US aid even found a way to turn one of the common consequences of high estrogen pills, which was painfully swollen breasts, into a positive. They started promoting the pills in rural Bangladesh with the tagline it makes your breasts more beautiful. It is good for you, including the tailors who have to make bigger braziers. You want big *******? Try those, baby. I got you the only consequence. But yeah, you might die. Your ***** are gonna be amazing. You know, when you're laying down and people coming to see you dead, you have ******* and they won't be legit. That's Christ. Now we focused rightfully on AH Robins and the horrifying dalkon shield. But the terrible reality of Western doctors forcing unsafe IUD's on impoverished women actually goes back even further than that. In the early 1960s, Western population control programs in rural India and Pakistan started using experimental spiral and ring shaped IUD's. These specific IUD's had been widely discredited by doctors at the time as causing extremely high rates of infection, pain and bleeding. I'm going to quote now from the website climate. Capitalism. Despite this, J Robert Wilson, chair of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Temple University, told the 1962 Population Council Conference, IUD should be rolled out regardless. We have to stop functioning like doctors, he said. In fact, it may well be that the incidence of infection is going to be pretty high in the patients who need the device most. Again, if we look at this from an overall long range view, these are the things I have never said out loud because I don't know how it's going to sound. Perhaps the individual patient is expendable in the general scheme of things. Particularly if the infection she acquires is sterilization, but not lethal, expendable, expendable. Good. Yeah, lovely. No mask on there, like, yeah, she's expendable. And honestly, if she gets a horrible infection that renders her sterile, that's a win. If we did what we said we were going to do, right, we control that population. Just right out in the open with it. It's amazing. Wow. Yeah. I mean, I give that guy honestly more credit than I give ravenholt because he's not Raven. Holtz is saying the same thing, but dressing up this guy just like, yeah, **** him. Like, it's about stopping them from giving birth. I don't care how we do it. Don't worry about the doctor's oath. Just go ahead and do your thing. Yeah, we can't act like doctors. These are poor people and they're not white. So it's fine. It's fine. We've got it. We've got this control. Let's do this good ****. Yeah. He yeah. Wilson's fellow obstetrician Alan Guttmacher, an influential figure in the Population Council, and I, PPF, extolled the benefits of IUD's in a similar vein. No contraceptive could be cheaper, and also, once the damn thing is in, the patient cannot change her mind. In fact, we will hope she will forget it's there and perhaps in several months, wonder why she has not conceived. Oh wait, what? Yeah, yeah, it's pretty bad, right? It's like roofie in your uterus. What the **** just happened? Yeah, hopefully the dumb ******** will forget they even have it. You'll never remember. And then. Ohh God yeah, it's pretty bad, right? I don't like those episode Robert. Now, a lot of the evidence for this episode comes from a couple of different sources, but most of them written by one man, Matthew Connolly, who has done more to unravel and expose the whole horrific story of the population control movement than probably any other Westerner. His book, fatal Misconception, lays out the whole sordid tale. In it he concludes the great tragedy of population control. The fatal misconception. Was to think that one could know other people's interests better than they know it themselves. But if the idea of planning other people's families is now discredited, this very human tendency is still with us. The essence of population control, whether it targeted migrants, the unfit, or families that seemed either too big or too small, was to make rules for other people without having to answer to them. It appealed to the rich and powerful because with the spread of emancipatory movements and the integration of markets, it began to appear easier and more. Profitable, that to control populations than to control territory. That's why opponents were correct in viewing it as another chapter in the unfinished history of imperialism. More profitable. Holy ****. Yeah. Yeah, and that chapter, Samantha, is in fact not finished today. You can still find many of these same attitudes present and well meaning powerful people today. In May 2009, a group of billionaires including Bill Gates, Ted Turner, David Rockefeller, George Soros and Warren Buffett all met in semi secrecy to discuss what they termed a nightmarish scenario, overpopulation. The London Sunday Times said they considered this a potentially disastrous environmental, social and industrial threat since at present more than 90% of projected. Population growth was expected to occur in the global S we can assume they were worried about precisely the same nations and sorts of people as Ray Ravenholt. And it's interesting that David Rockefeller attended because in the 1960s his father was one of the major founders of the Population Council, which helped fund and drive through lobbying everything we've talked about today. In 1970, journalist Steve Weissman termed people like Rockefeller members of the American Population Elite in an immortal line for Ramparts magazine. He noted in the hands of the self seeking humanitarianism. Is the most terrifying ISM of all. Wow, it's tough. Right. So caring about people and and I'm wanting to help in a help people survive bad. Well, no, it's it's it's when you're it's when you try to cloak your desire to control other people's behavior as wanting to help them. It's not wanting to help someone to force a contraceptive on them that they don't know the consequences of and that will harm them and that you're not going to give them follow up care and provide them with the essential vitamins and stuff it is. It is helping someone. Like, hey, here's a bunch of free condoms, here's how you use them, or here's a bunch of birth control pills. Here's how you use them. Here's what you need to know about how it will affect your body. Here's what you need to take in order for this to be safe. You know, that is helping people. It's helping people to say, you know, here's access to a vaccine, you know, that will deal with the problem that you have in this region. It's not helping people to, for example, do what the CIA did in Pakistan and secretly give people a fake vaccine in order to get blood samples to track down Osama bin Laden, which is the thing that happened. Yeah. It's not like, force her. Right, hysterectomies. And I said all. Yeah. And the biggest problem here is that in no way is overpopulation actually a problem. Overpopulation is not driving climate change. Overpopulation is not the issue we're dealing with here. It's what all these billionaires are focusing on. Because, in part, if you can get other people to think that overpopulation is the problem, then people won't look at billionaires is maybe part of the problem. But yeah, this is, this brings me to the conclusion of this story. Because yeah, there are some people who have learned from the past of the population control movement from this chapter in the history of imperialism, and one of those groups is the Sierra Club. Like most environmental organizations, the Sierra Club bought Whole Hog into population control throughout the 20th century. They thought that the best way to protect wild nature was to reduce the human population, and they bought into a lot of the stuff that we've talked about today and helped to fund it and all that horrible ****. But in 2020, they published A blog post repudiating that history titled The Overpopulation. With and it's dangerous connotations. The article is in 2020. Yeah, it took them a while, right? The article is brutal and unsparing. It points out that the population bomb, a 1968 book by Paul Erlich that was probably the single most influential inspiration behind modern fears of overpopulation, was also profoundly racist. It quote opens its fear mongering with a sensationalized account of traveling through Delhi, India, during a taxi ride. Author Paul Erlich notes people visiting, arguing and screaming, thrusting their hands through the taxi window, begging. Since that night, I've known the feel of overpopulation, what Erlich fails to mention. However is that while Delia's population was just shy of three million, both New York and Paris housed about 8,000,000 at the time. Airlifts emphasis on an Indian city, as the exemplification of overpopulation was part of a large and continuing pattern of focusing blame on the global S and mostly the non white people who lived there as affluent Western Europeans and Americans. And in this article, which is quite good, the Sierra Club makes the accurate point that our actual population with overpopulation has nothing to do with the raw number of humans on Earth, and certainly not in the number of people who live in the global S. It has everything to do with the wildly outsized amount of resources consumed by a privileged few, namely you and me and everybody listening to this podcast. The world's wealthiest half billion people are responsible for 50% of the planet's carbon dioxide emissions, despite making up 6% of the population. Yep. I get, Yep. There's so many things I just can't understand. The whole overpopulation movement in itself, not seeing that as a travesty to humanity in general. Yeah. And it's it is fundamentally racist while also being a thing that people who would call themselves anti racist buy into because they see we could all these giant know these, all these families that are 9 and 10 kids and you know, Mexico and Guatemala and in, in Paraguay or whatever. Uh like that's we got a that's a part of. Client has to be part of the climate change problem. Like, no dude, it's the fact that your family has three cars for two people, right? Like that is a bigger driver every light on using all kinds of emissions yet. But OK, yeah, it's absolutely the poor people who living on. And more to the point, it's not even really honestly, if we want to actually get at the core of the problem with climate change, it's not even like the fact that your family has three cars. It's that there is this giant system of mega corporations that profit based off of releasing emissions into the air. That also effectively control the levers of government and very effectively market to all of us and also very effectively stop reforms and things like public transportation that would reduce our need like our dependence on emissions generating vehicles like it's all. Bad, but it sure as hell not the pop. It's not the fault of somebody in Ethiopia who has eight kids, you know, if that I mean to be fair in general, like the poverty situation is not because. That they are wasting ****. That's not yeah, that's not how that works. Poor people are the best at not wasting **** man. I remember 1 ******* time in Mosul in Iraq. We were like hanging out with this, this group of, like, civil defense people like, basically EMT's, like going into collapsed buildings and they and pulling people out of the rubble and, like, they wanted to watch a movie. So they took apart an old refrigerator and an old, like giant, like, not one of the flat screens, one of the big boxy TV's. And they wired the TV through the refrigerator into a generator so that we could. Watch. I think it was Patriot games on like some ******* local channels. Yeah, all the Movies OK. Yeah. Poor. Yeah. They didn't waste ****. There wasn't things wasted. That's the that's the problem is the conversation is who's wasting what and who was actually the problematic issue in this conversation. And what are you really getting at that you just want to be in the hierarchy and make sure you come out on top? Yeah, exactly. Like there's ******* people listening to this, probably, including me, who have bought new TV's when old ones were not permanently. Broken, but just became a problem. It just you wanted something nicer. It's it's a bigger screen. I want the bigger screen with the better. Resilience isn't big enough. Yeah. Yeah. Come on, come on. I mean, yeah. But I'm sorry. Yeah, we all that's fine. Anyway. Well, thank you for the horror nightmare that you just put me through, Robert, once again. And then Sophie, there are a lot of things that I will be horrified of now. I feel like my IUD may be trying to crawl out of me. Thank you for that. I did not use a vaginal death crab for mine, and I want to be clear, like I've tried to make a point of this. I'm not saying IUD's are bad. I hope that's not what anyone takes out of this. Like the like, obviously the dalkon shield was like. And you know, the the the Marina might wind up being something like that. We don't really know what the whole story is going to be on that, although I know a lot of people who have it and have had no problem with it, like the the bad guy in this is again imperialism. Just talking about the healthcare in general, who has provided what type of care and what is being, who has the privilege of getting the better, not whatever, whatnot. So that's also the conversation. But yeah, the vaginal death crab, something that I will always remember. Thank you. I love that this was our first meeting that that's what our conversation about vaginal death crabs and you all can hear us play as vaginal death crabs when, you know, in 2022 were able to finally go on tour. I'm so excited for this. I've got my ukulele ready. Well, actually be opening for the Eagles, oddly enough. It was a strange booking, but yeah, my dream is coming true. Amazing. OK, well, you got anything you want to plug before we roll out of here? Samantha, again, you can find me on stuff Mom never told you. A podcast with iheart, wherever you get your podcast. And you can find me as McVay. Samantha McVey, Y that is the spelling, not the other one. Just one. Put that out there on both Instagram or Twitter. Yeah, and I am. Not available anywhere. You cannot find me. Don't try, I will destroy you. Sophie. Challenge accepted. Yep. They're so weird sometimes. Robert. I don't know. I don't know. I don't know. How do you? There's so many episodes of this ******* podcast. I can't end all of them. Like a competent professional. I feel like I got surprised into A2 parter. I was like, what? More death traps? Yeah, OK. Yeah, we said at some point early in the series that we mostly, we would only rarely do 2 parters, and then we proceeded to pivot to only doing 2 parters almost, and I don't know how I let that happen. Occasional twice per week, and then it was like I order it twice. Welcome to the world. Never enough good bad information out there. Yay. OK pea sizzle. Hello, I'm Erica Kelly from the podcast Southern Fried True crime, and if you want to go from podcast fan to podcast host, do what I did and check out spreaker from iheart. I was working in accounting and hating it. Then after just 18 months of podcasting with Spreaker, I was able to quit my day job. Follow your podcasting dreams. Let's break our handle the hosting, creation, distribution, and monetization of your podcast. Go to spreaker.com. That's SPREAK. Er.com. Hey there, it's Ebony Monet, your co-host for the San Diego Zoo's Amazing Wildlife podcast. In this special episode, we're speaking with Doctor Jane Goodall about the fascinating journey that led to her impactful behavioural discoveries on chimpanzees. It wasn't until one of the chimpanzees began to lose his fear of me, but I began to really make discoveries that actually shook the scientific world. Life on the iHeartRadio app or wherever you get your podcasts, sisters of the Underground is a podcast about fearless Dominican women who stood up against the brutal dictator Kapal Trujillo. He needs to be stopped. We've been silent and complacent for far too long. I am Daniel Ramirez, and I said Dominicana myself. I am proud to be narrating this true story that is often left out of the history books through your has blood on his hands. Listen to sisters of the underground wherever you get your podcasts.