There’s a reason the History Channel has produced hundreds of documentaries about Hitler but only a few about Dwight D. Eisenhower. Bad guys (and gals) are eternally fascinating. Behind the Bastards dives in past the Cliffs Notes of the worst humans in history and exposes the bizarre realities of their lives. Listeners will learn about the young adult novels that helped Hitler form his monstrous ideology, the founder of Blackwater’s insane quest to build his own Air Force, the bizarre lives of the sons and daughters of dictators and Saddam Hussein’s side career as a trashy romance novelist.
Mon, 01 Feb 2021 06:16
Episode 9: Uprising: A Guide From Portland: Tactics and Teargas
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Look for your children's eyes and you will discover the true magic of a forest. For you and start exploring at discovertheforest.org, brought to you by the United States Forest Service and the Ad Council. Members of this brew crew have broken out windows and multiple businesses. And in the Lloyd. Believe. They leave the area's failure to adhere to this order may subject you to arrest, citation or crowd control agents, including but not limited to tear gas and or impact weapons. Leave the area immediately. A phrase you'll hear thrown around often at Portland protests is diversity of tactics. It's a civil revolt organizing principle that dates back to at least around the 1960s and was popularized by people like Malcolm X's. Diversity of tactics emphasizes making periodic use of force for defensive or disruptive purposes, stepping beyond the limits of nonviolence, but also stopping short of militarization. It's about promoting solidarity between those who practice peaceful protest. And those who are more militant, as Malcolm X put it, are people have made the mistake of confusing the methods with the objectives. As long as we agree on objectives, we should never fall out with each other just because we believe in different methods or tactics or strategy to reach a common goal. Taking their cues from Malcolm X, Younger and more militant black liberation activists increasingly supported this approach, with Gloria Richardson of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee declaring in 1964 that the federal government would only be compelled to intervene on behalf of integration only when matters approach the level of insurrection. While support for diversity of tactics was foundational to struggles throughout the later half of the 20th century, the phrase itself was popularized by the protests against the Republican National Convention in St. Paul, MN in 2008. A broad coalition of Labor, antiwar, anti globalization, liberal and leftist groups drafted the Saint Paul Principles, which read as follows. Number one, our solidarity will be based on respect for a diversity of tactics and the plans of other groups. #2 the actions and tactics used will be organized to maintain a separation of time or space. #3 any debates or criticisms will stay internal to the movement, avoiding any public or media denunciations of fellow activists and events and #4. We oppose any state repression of dissent, including surveillance, infiltration, disruption, and violence. We agree not to assist law enforcement. Actions against activists and others. The principles were a rough compromise, the common ground that most of the 10,000 protesters who gathered in the Twin Cities to face down heavily militarized police could agree to. 12 years later, spurred on by the murder of George Floyd in Minneapolis, the national uprising of 2020 would grapple with those same debates over acceptable and useful tactics. They would find no easy answers. Here's Garrison in Portland. There has been even further distinction between peaceful protests I long pre planned marches with speeches and no property damage, and nonviolent protests where people aren't physically harmed but protesters do engage in property destruction for various reasons. It's often said when these different types of protests can happen simultaneously, both a big more liberal one and a smaller radical 1. That's when you can get the most reforms, as the Wilife explains here. Note the audio is redubbed. I do think that's important. Like if if we have to work inside the system and are not able to outright destroy it, that is definitely an important aspect because it gives, it basically gives the people in charge. In this case, we'll say Ted Wheeler. There are two options you can go with in his mind, the violent rioters wanting to destroy everything. Or you can go with the with the peaceful ones. He's left with two options and he's always going to take like the peaceful. Liberal marches and at the end of the day, it's not nothing because they're still out there demanding school resource officers, out of schools, the gang task force gone. And so it basically makes them choose. And I guess if we're working in the system, any progress is good. Despite police and the media's insistence, vandalism and violence are not the same thing, but there still is a public perception that anarchists, protesters and rioters are quote destroying the city, UN quote. Tristan notes how violence and vandalism are misconstructed and exaggerated in press coverage. I think the the kind of the most damaging thing or like the the worst kind of counter. Like narrative is is Mace Mace basically just around the like vandalism that goes on and like. Really kind of blowing that out of proportion. And and and trying to act like. That is going to. Uh, like, you know, like this distract, like, there's this, you know, narrative going around that that's like distracting from the real purpose of the movement and that it's you know, like, white anarchists like trying to take the the attention away from, like, black folks, and that's being pushed by really conservative black people and like. You know, the kind of people who they have a lot of influence with, you know, you'll see like. Mainstream. Like into a CP here in Portland who's always been tight with, like the Mayor's office, really pushing that narrative hard. Lots of other folks, you know, coming up to back them up. Yeah. So I guess one thing that I've also seen is that. There's this conflation of like, you know, they'll say like downtown is deserted because of these protests, because all the violence, but downtown is deserted because of the pandemic, and also despite the plague and a record number of businesses shutting down due to COVID, downtown Portland is unfortunately quite active at the moment. It is, in fact, not destroyed, nor taking enough appropriate COVID precautions. And it's not like that's like the most disingenuous thing anyone could possibly say in it. So it seems so patently obvious that it's. Like, you know, like a red herring. But then people are still like buying into it and to a certain degree are like echoing that sentiment. And it's just this is not the case. And it's like, and there's also this like desire for, for them to like they, they kind of say that it's it's all white anarchists, but there's no way that for you to prove that because most of the people who are doing this are all blocked up. And it's like so there's also this like. Kind of subtext that they what they really want for these people. They want to know who these people are. You know, partially to like, like, you know, gratify themselves, trying to be right, but also just so the ******* cops now, you know, it's like. It's like undercurrent of like. Respectability. Like if you know they really cared, they would like show their faces or something like that. Like, I don't know, the vast majority of Portland protesters do not partake in any political violence or even vandalism, even at the riots that end in destruction and violence. At almost every one of these protests physical violence is started and further escalated by law enforcement. Entire crowds get punished for the actions of a few individuals. The more rare alternative to this is quote UN quote targeted arrests. That, despite its name, are often not actually targeted at specific individuals and instead just end up targeting people wearing black clothes and those that don't run away fast enough from riot cops. The people arrested in these targeted arrests often get charged with a mix of small misdemeanors and sometimes egregious felonies, most of which end up getting dropped due to lack of evidence. When the arrests are specifically targeted, it's usually for such quote UN quote crimes as standing in protesting on the driveway. Of the ice building at 1:00 AM the validity of property destruction has faced a lot of criticism from pundits, politicians, and even many protesters. For the summer of 2020, there was actually very little property destruction saved for the first riot night as people were mostly trying to repeat the Occupy the areas around boarded up police buildings. But as the summer turned into fall and tactics evolved alongside the smaller crowd sizes, broken windows became more common. Critics say that it is not strategic because it does not help grow the movement, gain public support, or by itself be enough pressure for instituting change. That much is arguably true. But that assumes those were the goals of the action in the 1st place, which is usually not true. In a recent interview, local political consultant and former activist Gregory Mckelvey said this about the purpose of vandalism such as breaking windows. Quote honestly, I think in some cases the goal has been explicitly revenge for night after night of tear gas, beatings, disparate policing, and PPB's protection of the ice detention centers. However, again, we must put ourselves in the minds as someone who probably rightfully believes the world is ending, or at a minimum, is on the brink of being unrecognizable with incredible amounts of death. Teen and climate chaos. If the world is ending, some people are going to act like it. It's amazing to me that Liberal Democrats really do believe that we are on the brink of something like Armageddon and then are shocked that some people behave like it. What did you picture Armageddon to look like? Public testimony, UN quote. Vandalism, like graffiti and breaking windows also serves as a demanding of attention while also symbolizing a direct attack on racism and class divides, capitalism or the status quo itself. For years people have tried just. Asking nicely over the summer here in Portland, there were thousands of people peacefully demanding a $50 million budget cut from PBS's $245 million budget to then reinvest in community services. The minus 50 million would bring the police budget down closer to their 2016 budget of only 190 million. Other demands include wholly abolishing and replacing the Portland Police Bureau, dropping all charges for civil rights protesters, and that Mayor Ted Wheeler resigned. With none of those demands meant, and politicians all but ignoring the peaceful demonstrations, people are angry. So windows get broken and this seems to be the only thing that gets attention anymore and keeps the dialogue about police violence active. Here's Tristan again. Yeah, I mean. It's like I said, like I definitely feel like that. Kind of like vandalism should be. Engaged with and like a, let's say a productive kind of way if they don't necessarily think it's wrong, but. If it. If you can't see. Yeah I know this is this is hard to parse cause. I mean, it's totally valid for people to speed madness, smash it, and. I guess in terms of like small businesses? I mean well, I guess, OK, so one way that it's if I think fully justified, even if it is like a small business, if they're like cop friendly, if they're like. Cop adjacent and like, if they got like a Blue Lives Matter flag window like, gloves off. As far as I'm concerned, I don't give a **** but you know, if it's just like a random business, like. Probably, don't you know? Because. I mean, the cops are gonna they're gonna come at you anyway. You know. Whether you like, break a window or like, you know, burn a a cop car, right, they're gonna arrest you. And they probably arrest you even if you don't do that. And so it's really just a matter of like, which of those two acts? Is actually going to like materially. Mint Mobile offers premium wireless starting at just 15 bucks a month. And now for the plot twist. Nope, there isn't one. Mint Mobile just has premium wireless from 15 bucks a month. There's no trapping you into a two year contract. 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Slash behind better helcom behind. Hey, Robert Evans here. It's been like two months since I got LASIK laser eye surgery and my vision still 2020. So many things about my daily life has changed. I don't have to worry about putting on a mask and my glasses fogging up and have to take out contacts at night or put them in the day. I don't have to like worry all the time when I'm traveling. Like how many contacts do I have by go swimming at the lake during the summer? Something I like to do, go to the beach or whatever. I don't have to worry about losing a contact or. You know, bringing swimming glasses or something with me, everything is just easier. And getting it done was easy too, you know. I went in, I had my consultation, they told me I was a good candidate and then I went back in couple of days later. But a Bing bada boom, you know, my eyes were perfect. So LASIK Plus is a leader in laser vision correction in the United States. They have over 20 years in the industry and more than two million treatments performed. If you want to start your LASIK plus journey, you can get $1000 off when treated in September. That's 500 per eye so visitmylasikoffer.com to schedule your free consultation now deprive the police of their ability to commit further harm. Here's another quote from Gregory in his recent interview at the Willamette Week quote for generations like mine and the one after, Gregory is in his late 20s. By the way, we have been told our entire lives that the world is about to end if nothing is done immediately, and that all of the evils of our world. Climate chaos, racism. Ills of capitalism and more are all inexplicably LinkedIn my mind, and in the minds of protesters, these things are objectively true. So if a young person is told the world is ending and then told to sign up to testify or go vote, that does not meet the urgency of the moment. Destruction is a natural reaction to feeling desperate, helpless, and in imminent doom. The solution to all this would involve actually addressing the legitimate issues that are killing us all with the urgency that's necessary. The politicians who are acting like everything is fine, as the world literally burns, or say they care about these issues but don't actually do anything to fundamentally fix them, are only making the problems worse and people's desperation worse. And then when both liberals and conservatives alike make more of a fuss about a broken Starbucks window, then the literally hundreds of people beaten and gassed in the streets by the cops afterwards, that only further proves the protesters point. Adoption of teens from foster care is a topic not enough people know about, and we are here to change that. I'm April Dinwoodie, host of the new podcast navigating adoption presented by adopt US Kids. Each episode brings you compelling, real life adoption stories told by the families that live them, with commentary from experts. Visit adoptuskids.org/podcast or subscribe to navigating adoption presented. By adopt US kids, brought to you by the US Department of Health and Human Services Administration for children and Families and the ad Council when PT Barnum's Great American Museum burned to the ground in 1865, what rose from its ashes would change the world. Welcome to grim and mild presents an ongoing journey into the strange, the unusual, and the fascinating. For our inaugural season, we'll be giving you a backstage tour of the Always complex and often misunderstood cultural artifact that is the American side. Now, so come along as we visit the shadowy corners of the stage and learn about the people who are at the center of it all. In a place where spectacle was king, we will soon discover there's always more to the story than meets the eye, so step right up and get in line. Listen to grim and male presents now on the iHeartRadio app, Apple Podcasts, or wherever you listen to podcasts. Learn more over at grim and mild.com/presents. Hi, I'm Robert lamb. And I'm Joe McCormick. And we're the hosts of the Science podcast stuff to blow your mind, where every week we get to explore some of the weirdest questions in the universe. Like if sci-fi teleportation was possible, how would it square with the multitudes of organisms that inhabit our human bodies? Can we find evidence of emotions in animals like bees, ants, and crayfish? How would an interplanetary civilization function? Does free will exist? Stuff to blow your mind examines neurological quandaries. Cosmic mysteries, evolutionary marvels, and the wonders of techno history. Basically, this show is the altar where we worship the weirdness of reality. If anybody ever told you, you ask the weirdest questions, it is time to come. Join us in the place where you belong, the stuff to blow your mind podcast new episodes publish every Tuesday and Thursday, with bonus episodes on Saturdays. Listen to stuff to blow your mind on the iHeartRadio app, Apple Podcasts, or wherever you get your podcasts. It would be remiss to talk about tactics without mentioning the influence Hong Kong's protests have had on the Portland Uprising and the 2020 BLM protests in general. The militant protests in Hong Kong sent shockwaves across the world. Months before the COVID pandemic, Hong Kong protesters used tennis rackets and umbrellas to deflect police projectiles and traffic cones and water bottles. To contain and diffuse tear gas grenades. All of these tactics were adapted at various points throughout the Portland protests. At a PPB press conference back in July, the deputy chief featured an infographic describing the different roles protesters took up in the Hong Kong uprising. PB also tweeted out the graph saying, quote, we have seen all of this that demonstrations in Portland UN quote. Knowingly or unknowingly, the PVB had aligned themselves with the Hong Kong police and their crackdown on the Hong Kong. Protests. Arguably the most widely accepted and praised protest movement of the last decade prior to the George Floyd protests. Here's Deputy Chief Chris Davis introducing the graphic at his July 8th press conference. So now I want to talk just a little bit about some of the in, in broader terms, some of the tactics that we're seeing. We'll make this available as a PDF for you. This is not secret information. Here. This we got this off the Internet. This picture popped up a lot. On social media and on the Internet right as events began. I'm not sure exactly what the origin of this is. We're still working on trying to figure this out, but this is not our diagram we got this off of, off of the Internet. The graphic that he showed was originally based on the Hong Kong protests and designed to assist protesters. It outlines the anatomy of a typical protest, laying out the different protest roles that people can take on to achieve their goals. It's important to note that one person doesn't need to be stuck with a single purpose for one day. The roles people take up and the actions they do can be semi fluid. The graphic gave each of these rules kind of silly names and well designed based on a different struggle. Each of these roles was represented in some form in Portland first our support roles that people can do from home if they are unable to attend in person. These include graphic designers who make posters, banners and infographics, and people who work. Online comms listening to police scanners and signal boosting information about police activity and location from on the ground sources, and then distributing the information via apps like Telegram, Signal and Twitter. Moving on to at the actual protest in the back barricade. Ours people who build barricades out of usually found objects. In Portland we've seen these have two main purposes. One to help prevent vehicular attacks on the crowd, and two, quickly erect obstacles as police are chasing the crowd. And hopefully slow the police down. Up next, medics and people who help with tear gas or pepper spray exposure medics all have different skill ranges and in Portland have had to deal with minor medical issues like tear gas but also broken bones, head trauma, seizures and gunshot wounds. They often stay towards the back of a protest to both have a safe place for treatment and in cases where an ambulance has to be called in closer to the middle, we have people that were playfully referred to in the Hong Kong graphic. As fire squads and range soldiers, fire squads are protesters who use water and traffic cones to suppress and extinguish tear gas canisters. Portland police even began collecting and confiscating city traffic cones so that they wouldn't be used this way. Another anti tear gas measure we've seen is simply heat resistant gloves used to Chuck tear gas back at cops or away from crowds. Hockey sticks and lacrosse sticks have also been used to relocate tear gas canisters during the Fed War. This group also came to include people with leaf blowers. We did a really good job at keeping gas at Bay. Range soldiers are protesters who throw water bottles, paint balloons, and other random trash to help inhibit police from advancing. Beside them are light mages and fire mages. Light mages use lasers and flashlights to obstruct surveillance cameras, drones, and stop police from being able to aim and identify protesters. While effective when used in the large numbers seen in the Hong Kong protests, isolated lasers did very little to obscure cameras. Or disrupt police surveillance. Although the feds and PPB officers did report some eye strain due to the laser targeting, Portland police have even described being quote UN quote struck with objects including lasers. For example here in this audio courtesy of Local St reporter Jasper Florence. By objects including large rocks, bottles, eggs, mortars and lasers. These objects are hard and traveling at high rates of speed with the strike officers, and are believed to be coming from slingshots. Fire mages are protesters who are prepared to set fires often. These are two barricades in dumpsters, although Portland's months of protests saw extensive use of fireworks and at least 4 Molotov cocktails. Half of which actually hit fellow protesters. Thankfully, no one was permanently injured by MOLTOV'S in Portland during 2020. Now closer to the front, peaceful protesters who make up the bulk of any martyr action and could also include people who don't want to fight but join hand in hand with the frontliners and conserve as human Shields. During the fight with the federal forces, thousands of Portlanders made-up of the peaceful crowds, while the wall of moms acted as a frontline, often protecting people who were throwing tear gas. Minister is back at the feds. Another role showcased on the graphic is what's referred to as a flag bearer. Their job is to signal and warn when riot police are approaching. In Hong Kong this was done via flags and signs, and in Portland this was done by someone with a sports whistle. Then of course we have frontliners people up at the front, some ready to take various direct action and others with umbrellas to guard against projectiles and cameras. And then at the very front, shield soldiers or shield bearers. With Shields made out of foam, wood or sometimes umbrellas in July, Portland got pretty famous for its shield wall. But like everything else, it needs to be a tactic that's carefully applied under certain conditions, or it can actually be a hindrance. In theory, shieldwalls serve 2 main purposes to deflect against projectiles and offer first line of defense from charging enemies or people attacking with batons. Shields are effective at stopping ammunition fire, but when facing bull rushes, Shields are grabbed by police. Been used to gain leverage on protesters to push them onto the ground or destabilize them so they can be attacked and arrested. One element of a truly effective shield wall, whether you're advancing or simply holding your ground, is people behind the shield wall throwing projectiles because often merely a shield wall alone isn't enough to deter people, which is why when law enforcement brings out their Shields, they also have people behind them shooting grenades, tear gas, and pepper balls. Another advantage of the shield wall projectile combo is that Shields can be used to visually obstruct the police from seeing who is throwing objects, making some targeted arrests more difficult. But you better be confident in your throw or you might hit your friends. Although even having a shield in the 1st place makes you more of a target for arrests, and if you touch an officer with your shield, let's say by an officer charging directly at you at full speed, you can get charged with assaulting a police officer. Probably the most effective shield wall we've seen in Portland was not used against the PPB or the feds, but the proud boys and other street fascists. On August 22nd all these different elements came together in a rare instance, a strong, tight, interlocking network of Shields with support. Behind enough to stop incoming attackers and folks behind the wall throwing rocks, water bottles, and fireworks altogether. It was enough to break the far right's more disorganized and individualistic shield wall. And also, of course, the proud boys don't have arresting powers, so people are more free to push back with their Shields. Other consideration for Shields depend on what your objective is and what tactics do you use to achieve that objective in the fall as crowds thinned and protests began to move faster the large. Bulky Shields were largely abandoned by some protesters in favour of umbrellas. Shields can be heavy and awkward to move with. Plus there's getting the shield to the action, carrying it around, and then figuring out what you want to do with it afterwards. These are all added consideration. Mint Mobile offers premium wireless starting at just 15 bucks a month and now for the plot twist. Nope, there isn't one. Mint Mobile just has premium wireless from 15 bucks a month. There's no trapping you into a two year contract. You're opening the bill to find all these nuts fees. There's no luring you in with free. Prescriptions are streaming services that you'll forget to cancel and then be charged full price for none of that. For anyone who hates their phone Bill, Mint Mobile offers premium wireless for just $15.00 a month. Mint Mobile will give you the best rate whether you're buying one or for a family, and it meant family start at 2 lines. All plans come with unlimited talk and text, plus high speed data delivered on the nation's largest 5G network. You can use your own phone with any mint mobile plan and keep your same phone number along with all your existing contacts. Just switch to Mint mobile and get premium wireless. Service starting at 15 bucks a month? Get premium wireless service from just $15.00 a month and no one expected plot twists at mintmobile.com/behind. That's mintmobile.com/behind. Seriously, you'll make your wallet very happy at mintmobile.com/behind. Now, a word from our sponsor that our help. If you're having trouble stuck in your own head, focusing on problems dealing with depression, or just, you know, can't seem to get yourself out of a rut, you may want to try therapy. And better help makes it very easy to get. Therapy that works with your lifestyle and your schedule, a therapist can help you become a better problem solver, which can make it easier to accomplish your goals no matter how big or small they happen to be. So if you're thinking of giving therapy a try, better help is a great option. It's convenient, accessible, affordable, and it is entirely online. You can get matched with a therapist after filling out a brief survey. And if the therapist that you get matched with doesn't wind up working out, you can switch therapists at any time when you want to be a better problem solver. Therapy can get you there. Visit betterhelp.com/behind today to get 10% off your first month. That's better. Helpp.com/behind betterhelp.com/behind. Hey, Robert Evans here. It's been like two months since I got LASIK, laser eye surgery and my vision still 2020. So many things about my daily life has changed. I don't have to worry about putting on a mask and my glasses fogging up. I don't have to take out contacts at night or put them in the day. I don't have to like, worry all the time. When I'm traveling, like, how many contacts do I have by I go swimming at the lake during the summer, something I like to do, go to the beach or whatever. I don't have to worry about losing a contact or, you know, bringing swimming glasses or something. With me, everything is just easier. And getting it done was easy too, you know, I went in, I had my consultation, they told me I was a good candidate, and then I went back in a couple of days later about it being about a boom. You know, my eyes were perfect. So LASIK Plus is a leader in laser vision correction in the United States. They have over 20 years in the industry. For more than two million treatments performed, if you want to start your LASIK plus journey, you can get $1000 off when treated in September. That's 500 per eye. So visitmylasikoffer.com to schedule your free consultation now, particularly if you want to leave a protest more covertly. As great as it may be to have a wooden foam or plastic shield in the moment as you're deflecting grenades or pushing off someone, it may not be worth all those extra tradeoffs, especially if an umbrella. And suffice in your ammunitions shielding needs. Umbrellas are more of a multi use tool that can adapt two different situations and even be concealable, especially collapsible ones. Well, not as sturdy as a shield, umbrellas are generally less suspicious than huge wooden Shields. A reinforced banner can also provide some protection from munitions while also sending out a message. However, some places have legal restrictions on what banners can be made of. Throughout the summer, nightly actions focused on direct confrontation, with police often returning to repeatedly confront the same riot line. By August, while protest tactics remained largely unchanged, the Portland police tactics began to change. PPB alternated between nights of brutal bull rushes and physical violence, with only few arrests, and other nights where they conducted mass arrests of entire crowds. Back. Run. Arrest them. There you go. Going to jail there. How do you they're ******* staying there. Excuse me? By fall, smaller crowd sizes and less frequent actions required protesters to change up tactics as well. Repeated direct confrontation with Riot Lines was in many ways a habit picked up from the days of mass mobilization at the fence, and such confrontations took arrests for granted. Protesters were being treated as disposable. When Portland had been the focus of national news, facing down police lines reliably generated front page coverage of police brutality. But by early fall, Portland was no longer the focus of attention and overtime, the shock and awe of footage showcasing police brutality wears off even as people keep getting hurt. By October night time actions began to involve smaller crowds of people on black bloc smashing the windows of banks, real estate firms, and Starbucks coffee shops, and then attempting to vanish into the night. These actions raised familiar objections from the more moderate sectors of the movement and fit the right wing narrative of the destructive Antifa boogeyman. But as we touched on earlier, these actions were not to gain good optics, but instead to vent frustration that the previous demands for change had not been met and to create an economic cost. Of the city in maintaining the status quo. These marches echoed the black bloc snake marches of the 90s anti globalization movement and to a lesser extent the bee water mantra of the Hong Kong protests. Though in Hong Kong crowds routinely targeted civil infrastructure, this shift in tactics resulted in less arrests on average, though smaller crowd size made the diverse roles the larger demonstrations impossible and the prevalence of vandalism meant that those who were arrested could face some harsher charges. Portland mayor. Good Wheeler has admitted to the difficulty of combating such attack and disappear actions, saying, quote, they pop up wearing black from head to toe, they go down streets relatively quickly, then they disappear into the wind. Those tactics have evolved to a degree where we now find the law enforcement tools we have in place are dated. I'm Eve Rodsky, author of the New York Times Bestseller Fair play and find your Unicorn space activists on the gender division of Labor attorney and family mediator. And I'm doctor Edina Rucar, a Harvard physician and medical correspondent with an expertise in the science of stress resilience, mental health, and burnout. We're so excited to share our podcast, time out, a production of iheart. Podcasts and hello sunshine. We're uncovering why society makes it so hard for women to treat their time with the value it deserves, so take this time out with us. Listen to time out a Fair Play podcast on the iHeartRadio app, Apple Podcasts, or wherever you get your podcast. Hello and welcome to our show. I'm Zoe Deschanel and I'm so excited to be joined by my friends and castmates, Hannah Simone and Lamorne Morris. To recap our hit television series New Girl. Join us every Monday on the welcome to our show podcast, where we'll share behind the scenes stories of your favorite New Girl episodes, reveal the truth behind the legendary game True American, and discuss how this show got made with the writers, guest stars, and directors who made the show so special. Fans have been begging us to do a New Girl recap for years and we finally made a podcast. Where we answer all your burning questions like, is there really a bear in every episode of New Girl? Plus, each week you'll hear hilarious stories like this at the end when he says you got some Schmidt on your face. I feel like I pitched that joke. I believe that I feel like I did. I'm not 1000% I want to say that was I? I tossed that one out. Listen to the welcome to our show podcast on the iHeartRadio App, Apple Podcasts, or wherever you get your podcasts. Executive producer Paris Hilton brings back the hit podcast how men think, and that's good news for anyone that is confused by men, which is basically everyone get an inside look at what goes on in the mind of men from the men themselves. It's real talk straight from the source. The how Men Think podcast is exactly what we need to figure them out. It's going to be fun, informative, and probably a bit scary at times because we're literally going inside the minds of men. As much as we like to think all men are the same, they're actually very different. Each week, a celebrity guest host provides honest advice in his area of expertise. When I agreed to do this reboot, I had a few conditions. No sugar coating, no mind games, and absolutely no mansplaining. Men are hard enough to understand without the mind games. Listen to how men think on the iHeartRadio app, Apple Podcasts, or wherever you get your podcasts. Since the summer of 2017, the image of black clad Antifa militants has loomed large in the nation's imagination. The garb, which Wheeler describes as black from head to toe, is, of course, black bloc countersurveillance tactic which originated in Europe in the 1980s and was first popularized in the United States during the 1999 World Trade Organization protests in Seattle traditionally. Fox serves to protect the identity of individuals involved in militant action, and people on block provide a defensive frontline in larger protests, specifically in confrontations with police and the far right. Theoretically, blocks should make it difficult to identify the wearers gender, race and age. This has led to activists and block being glossed over as young white anarchists, which cosca takes issues with. People keep hearing that and believing that it does. **** *** some people of color to hear that. But it's not true. There are. There's plenty of of people of color that are in black, and there's plenty of people in color. I I would say the only people that are the main people that whose ideas are listened to are are people of color. Given the prevalence of both CCTV and phone cameras in protest settings, even the small details can be uniquely identifying. At a Seattle Mayday action in 2012, one activist was ultimately identified by his shoes. As such, modern block often includes removing logos and other recognizable elements from clothing. This also means that morale patches or more tactical looking gear can also be used to it. Define the wearer. Black is a tactic, not an organization, a uniform or identity. Here's an indigenous participant in the wall of moms describing how she shifted from Black bloc as the protests continued. Yeah, I show up and block. I just like, started just I just went out with, like, a shirt and a. A yellow shirt and some like black pants and now I'm like full block, like with everything. I have a bulletproof vest. That was provided to me. Umm. Yeah, so. And how transition has been crazy. That was falling out of money, yeah. So it's just I'm really big on being autonomous. And not really having. Any leaders or things like that? And as. I just want to be. Another face in the crowd. I don't and I don't. I wanna be unrecognizable. So I think that like, that's why block block is so important. And also. Don't want to be targeted, and I want to be able to, like, protect other people around me. It's my responsibility to make sure that I am unrecognizable to, like my other protesters and my friends. Because if something happens to me, you know, 11 wrong move or getting docs or something like that can really affect everyone around me. So that's why it was really important for me to kind of transition into the block block. I've just been seeing so many of like my friends and comrades, just kind of like getting doxxed. Just being recognized by like small things, even if they're in black box, so. It's just, it's. I just feel like it's my responsibility. If I'm going to be out there, then I need to be. Like a noticeable or unrecognizable for obvious reasons, block is only protective in groups and draws the attention of law enforcement. Another aspect of wearing block is bringing extra clothes and figuring out when and where you should take off your black block or D block, as you probably don't want to get snatched up and arrested while leaving in action. In Portland on January 20th, 2021, people were arrested on a sidewalk after a protest many blocks away just because they were still wearing black. Block, and in doing so, matched the supposed description of people who vandalized a building. I also wearing black clothes. Lots of people actually wear normal clothes under their block and making deblocking a little easier, but people still need to choose a time and discrete place to take off their black outer garments. Besides Shields, umbrellas, and block, the other gear people have acquired and brought to the protests also helped set Portland apart. James from Portland Action Maddox describes how the gear their organization. Provided mirrored the evolution of the movement, the summer got really, really wild. And, you know, first we we we had respirators, some of us who are more seasoned protest medics, but they weren't widely used. Because the thing about tear gas is like, if there's just a little bit of it, you can just walk away and, like, it will burn your eyes. But like, if you just go downwind or upwind, like, it's fine most of the time, but that's not true if they're using it. Extraordinary quantities of it such that entire parks are just full of gas, right. So we went from the situation where respirators were kind of this niche like gearhead thing to an absolute necessity, basically overnight. And and then we learned a lot about what kind of cartridges filter out COVID versus what kind of cartridges filter out tear gas and how to combine them with each other. And then we were like. Getting a little like tear gas canister snack packs for people that are like, these sandwich bags contain both together and you should just plug them right in. We pre assembled them for you. Here's your gas mask. And then I was like, well, what if we get full face gas mask that have included eye Shields? That's probably happened because we're in a pandemic. Portland action medics and others distributed hundreds of respirators and began using 3D printers to make gas mask inserts for eyeglasses, as glasses are notoriously. Incompatible with full face masks as police violence continued and violence from the far right escalated, James says. Additional gear became necessary, I think. It has mostly been in response to Umm far right fighters coming into Portland that we have really been a lot more worried about gunshots intentionally being fired at people potentially in a mass way. You know, like all, all, all police come with guns and so that's always a possibility. But like we have yet, we saw some brandishing of firearms at people from the feds over the summer. But we have yet, to my knowledge, to see police fire live rounds on protesters. Umm, but the far right like constantly runs around on the Internet saying they're going to shoot us. Every day. And so you know, depending on how serious you take, Umm, it's reasonable to prepare for such a thing. And so, Umm, especially over the summer as the rhetoric from the far right increased in extremeness. Plus the I mean, basically, like, if someone's firing projectiles at crowd and discriminately, then it makes sense to wear a helmet, and of us, regardless of who those people are. And it's hard to distinguish. It doesn't matter whether it's a cop or a fascist that is not wearing uniform doing that, right? So there's that for like, throughout the summer, people were like, I need Ballistics, I need to have your Ballistics. I need a helmet. I need a better helmet, I need goggles. I need better goggles. I need shatterproof. And because we kept seeing people just get really badly ****** ** by projectiles. Umm, so there's that. But then, yeah, specifically when it comes to gunshot wounds, we did a lot of preparations, especially leading up to the election, frankly, because the rhetoric about what people wanted to do was really scary, and it's it's always impossible, basically to tell how seriously to take these people. Other necessary gear is ear protection for flashbangs. This can be a little. Earplugs or more bulky noise cancelling headphones. Air protection became very important during the Fed War as flash banks from the feds are way more powerful and damaging than the ones Portland police use. Here's Donovan Smith teargas. It was used almost every night in the more than 100 days of protests in Portland, both by local police, and then revved up again during the federal occupation. But what exactly was this so-called? Gas that was filling the streets of Portland each night anyways? Well, turns out it's a wartime chemical, banned by the 1925 Geneva Convention following the First World War. Their protocol and nixing the use of poisonous gases during warfare was adopted, including some lethal compounds like chlorine and hydrogen gas. And while its name sounds like something that would make you feel similar to cutting up onions at dinner, a deeper look into his true effects begin to open up a much clearer picture on why it's been banned as a tool of warfare for decades. Turns out tear gas isn't even a gas at all. It's sort of a chemical explosion, one where a chemical powder gets heated up really quick and mixed with the solvent and finally release as an aerosol and wallah, tear gas. It's sole purpose from there is to induce pain. Doctor Anita Randolph explains its effects here. She LED a research paper on the effects of tear gas commissioned by Don't Shoot Portland, published in late June, just weeks after the uprisings began. This is actually a solid that's why they're packed in that canister. Umm, so there's a few chemical reactions that have to happen. To convert it to a gas like substance. So when you are out there you're getting tear gas, you know, it's kind of like this white mist or white powder everywhere and that's because it has to be heated up to be able to Umm be dispersed, right? And then once it's dispersed you have this big and then it just allows it to spread over a larger radius I think in the paper. Umm. From our research, we showed that one canister tear gas can reach like a 400 meter squared radius, which is like a one loop around a track, which is large, right? Because once you stretch it out, that's all. That's a lot of area that it can cover. And there's also, like, very potent that can penetrate glass. Right? So that's why people were dressing in layers too, right? Even me, I was like, oh, man. When I learned that, I was like, dressing in layers, you know, people getting tear gassed, they're like shedding layers. The back of it just it just goes through and it just wants it's on your skin, especially when you're sweating and those glands are open. It's just very painful. I can honestly say I don't. I don't. I'm not too motivated to get tear gassed. The pain isn't just exclusive to humans. Similar reactions are caused in animals too, even causing death at certain levels of exposure. A 2019 protest in Hong Kong saw a nearby veterinary clinic forced to evacuate all its feline patients after police began shooting the so-called riot control agents into the crowd of nearby demonstrators. Not all the cats could be moved in time, though. In one case, an 18 month year old cat reportedly began clawing at its eyes after inhaling the gas, while there's little documentation on how tear gas. Affected the critters of Portland. They certainly were a feature of the protests, with one standout being a £350 llama named Caesar. His owner, a Central Oregon man, says he bought Caesar to the demonstrations to boost morale and would quickly depart with him when munitions began sounding off. And while Caesar went unscathed, we cannot say the same with certainty. For all our other furry friends, another possible victim of Portland's bouts of chemical warfare was one of the city's pride and joys. Its environment early in the protest concerned eyes turned towards the Willamette River, the de facto divider between the cities east and West side, the 13th largest N Flowing river in the United States. The Willamette also shares the distinction of being a Superfund site, meaning it's been pegged by the feds as one of the most toxic sites in the entire country and not so distant relic of the heavy industrial activity, particularly along A10 mile stretch spanning from the Burnside Bridge. To Solve's Island and short, the Willamette is no stranger to abuse, but some began to wonder if all the CS gas and pepper spray runoff was furthering those harms as cleanup crews power washed the residue into storm drains leading to the river. The city's Bureau of Environmental Services began vacuuming tear gas residue from the drains surrounding the Downtown Justice Center in August during the Fed occupation to prevent any toxic harms, but despite a wealth of research on the effects of tear gas. Little seemed to be known on both its short and long term effects on the environment, so the move came out as a bit of a preventative shot in the dark, according to the Bureau. At the very least, the gas was an illegal discharge, as no other substances besides rainwater are allowed down the drains. Morgan from the Mutual Way protest cleanup group Team Raccoon said they could feel the remnants in the air returning to Ground Zero every morning. Basically, we we got. A little bit of money from mutual aid donations. And we were wondering what, because Park cleans are pretty low cost, you know, trash bags, trash grabbers doesn't cost a lot of money to maintain that. So we were wondering, like, what do we do with this money that will really help our community? And we were noticing the air quality in Lownsdale and Chapman getting worse and worse and worse because of the tear gas and the chemical munitions. Every night, even just walking through there during the day, you wanted to put your respirator on at the end of July. The move led to a mass mobilization of respirators and on the ground research into the gas, Morgan continues. So we were connected to some researchers. Who wanted to keep a certain level of anonymity, and we decided the best way to do that was through us. We could accept filters from the protest community, and we could give them to the researchers. The researchers could conduct their studies in the privacy that they want. And we could use mutual aid money to facilitate that. Meanwhile, city bureaucrats began running their own tests on the sediments collected from the nearby drains to test for the primary chemicals associated with tear gas. Hexavalent chromium, perfoliate, barium, and cyanide the following month, the Bureau released its findings, saying that while there were higher levels of toxins at the source of the storm drains, by the time they hit the river, levels were pretty much normal. The results only accounted for the August round of chemicals found in the River BS. Officials insisted, however, that the testing was thorough, as it accounted for the buildup of chemicals that have been deployed since the George Floyd uprisings in late May. This didn't stop 5 environmental groups from teaming up to launch a lawsuit against the Department of Homeland Security alleging they were out of compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act by not conducting an assessment on the impacts of their gas. Ahead of using it, breaking federal law. Represented by the ACLU, the groups seeked a complete sabbage and federal usage of tear gas. DHS ended up pulling out before the ruling was made, but the question continued to loom. What exactly were the long term effects of tear gas? It's a question that's further complicated when considering the findings of chemical weapons research conservatorium who say during the feds occupation of mix of CS gas and toxic chemicals. More grenades, mate hexachloroethane or HC gas. HC is a toxic compound banned by the US military for its severe health effects, but was deployed repeatedly by federal agents against the people of Portland, easily identifiable by the way the canisters glow red continuously spouting dense, opaque smoke for a minute or more. Juniper Simonis, who helped lead the research team, explains its effects here. I saw a number of people that had basically chemical burns. The chemical mist burns that they had never had with other gases. The stomach set of symptoms. So if you ingest it, which you would do through gulping or just having your mouth open. Walking through gas, that will cause vomiting, nausea, and that whole kind of set of symptoms because your body wants knows that zinc is bad, it wants it out in your lungs. However, what happens is. Zinc chloride is really corrosive because of the chlorine. Among the complications, a number of protesters reported having prolonged irregular menstrual cycles, sometimes bleeding for weeks after exposure to the gas. Oregon Public Broadcasting spoke with 26 people attended the protest and self reported changes in their bodies. Effects reported included trans people who would cease taking testosterone shots beginning to menstruate again. Others reported pain. Feel uncomfortable? They had to take a trip to the hospital in one month alone. Others reported multiple cycles for a long time. Especially right now with COVID we it's it's kind of hard to tweeze out if somebody has a long term symptom that's going to linger for a while. I think due to the pandemic, it's going to confound a lot of these things. A lot more is going to make it a lot more difficult to tweeze out one from the other definitively, you know? Umm, but I do think it needs to be investigated. I hope people don't forget about it, especially with the unhoused. You know, Portland has a a really? High number of unhoused individuals and my heart broke for them like every day because, you know, we pack up and go home, but, you know, we're, we're in their space, essentially. So if it's getting tear gassed every single night constantly, they are actually the ones that's getting exposed the most and have the highest frequency of exposure. But for whatever reason, it's not too many people advocating for them in this space, so I just really wanted to throw that out there. While no definitive links have been made yet between tear gas and their regular cycles, the string of complaints made for yet another worry as protesters hit the front lines each night, facing off with the police force armed with a banned war chemical whose true effects may not be known for years to come about a week after George Floyd's murder. Don't shoot Portland loss a class action lawsuit against the city of Portland alleging indiscriminate use of tear gas and excessive force at the hands of the Portland Police Bureau. Shortly thereafter, U.S. District Judge Marco Hernandez ruled in their favor, placing A2 week restraining order on the Bureau until further court ruling. However, there was a catch. In his ten page ruling, the judge wrote the following quote. In addition, tear gas used shall be limited to situations in which the lives are safety of the public or the police are at risk. This includes the lives and safety of those housed at the Justice Center. Tear gas shall not be used to disperse. Crowds where there is little or no risk of injury. End Quote. That little or no risk left a lot up to interpretation for the Portland Police Bureau. Governor Kate Brown signed a bill that had banned tear gas following Hernandez's ruling that followed similar directives in July. Teargas was banned only into the police declare a riot loudly. Police had already been loose in their existing directives for when and when not to use tear gas. Up until then, the only thing preventing thousands from being draped in wartime chemicals was officers on the ground declaring the gather a quote unlawful assembly. After that, you'd have to hear something like this a few times. More rest and may subject you to the use of tear gas, crowd control agents and or impact weapons. Once this request for dispersal was given over the loudspeaker a few times, it was up to the incident commander to give the green light on firing the gas into the crowd. After the so-called temporary ban, things pretty much continued to follow this pattern, from the police chief to the mayor. Officials at the city continued to argue that tear gas was a key tool and the cops arsenal to disperse protesters. But despite the questionable use of force breaching the 1st amendment, the gas often encroached on those who weren't even on the front. Lines of the demonstrations tear gases, grip loomed across the city and in the case of Demetia Smith, it followed her family home and all of a sudden they seen flashing lights and looked outside and the whole PA building was lined with riot officers. And the last time we had protested, I don't remember the exact date. We were downtown and it was the day it made news that the police had tear gas, like there was a group of protesters that weren't a part of like a group of 3000 people, but the police. Back to your guys. Everybody was that was down there. My son was caught in the middle of that. So he, like, already been like on edge about police. So he called me freaking out that the riot police were all front of a building in front of my mom's house. And he was like crying like hysterically. Like he didn't know what was going to happen and he was just telling me to be careful. And there was no protesters there. It was just all police, like their presence, like, had him freaked out and crying. So I'm leaving work and when I come home so I can't park there. Can't even get through to there because at that time now the protesters have made it to the PA building as well as the riot officers. So I'm like circling around, circling around, and I couldn't park anywhere close enough. So I I parked my car at home and walked all the way through. And because I'm trying to get to my kid, so I'm walking through and everybody all of a sudden you just start seeing smoke and whatnot. But again, I'm in mom mode and like, that's my house. And again, I already the police aren't. I've witnessed the police not acting right during protests. Like, no, they're trying to push me back and I'm like, I'm live right here. You guys can see my ID. 100 days in, crowds continue to show up and cops continued to guess tomorrow Ender. Was just off of Ventura Park in East Portland on the 100th night of protest. He found his neighborhood blanketed in tear gas. And I was like, oh geez. So then at that point we make our way past tear gas again and basically climbed our little fence and jump over that to get inside her house and. Make sure all the windows were closed and then we put towels under the the two kids rooms. I mean, we have A at that point we had a one month old Child, 2 month old child, and a 2 year old child and it's incredibly scary to have tear gas deployed. It was more than one canister of tear gas that was deployed in front of our house, and you don't have anywhere to go, so the police are on all sides of my house. There's loud speakers. Loud noises. Tear gas being deployed. I mean, the street from my house was a war zone. The police turned it into a war zone and the response was over the top. It was, in my opinion, meant to chill speech. And. I mean we don't have gas masks in our house and they don't make a gas mask for a 2 month old child and so our options is limited. I mean it's if if it was a private individual doing this I could defend my house, but. I don't have that luxury when it's the government doing it. Morgan, a member of Team Raccoon, have been cleaning up trash and spent munitions at protests throughout the summer. After the ongoing gassing of neighborhoods, they shifted to supplying families with respirators for their children. What we found was that the best situation was a 3M respirator for ages about 7 and up and younger than that. What we do is we get something called a barter system, which is a pressure positive hood that also has a straw and a sippy cup, and it's made for young children. The pressure positive hood helps so they don't have to have anything strapped to their face and the motor keeps it keeps filtered air moving through the hood so it never it never stops moving out and that's how they keep the tear gas away from children. For infants we weren't really able to find something that was super affordable and. Easy to get. So for infants, we basically suggest what people do when they are trying to keep terias out of their homes. Roll up a towel and put it under the door. Try to get as far away from Windows or any exit points as possible. If you need to evac, you know, try to make sure that you get to safe air as quickly as possible. But there aren't a lot of answers when you're talking about infant impact and tear gas or prevention from getting tear gas in infants lungs. As the smoke from September wildfire settled over Portland, Mayor Wheeler issued a ban on. CS Gas Wheeler's Police Bureau pushed back. Both the police chief and their union head publicly rallied against him, with the Portland Police Association launching a full on petition railing against the ban. Then the smoke cleared. Just days after Wheeler's ban, a familiar scene formed outside the Immigrations and Customs Enforcement building with calls by protesters to abolish ice. A group of about 100 gathered outside the facility and were met not by PPB, but federal agents. Shortly after nightfall, tear gas ensued alongside pellets and smoke bombs. Wheeler and Police Chief Lovell were quick to announce that their Bureau wasn't responsible for the night's chaos, which ended with nearly a dozen arrests. Protests continued in much this way. In the days following the wildfires, direct actions around town at night, drawing out a few dozen people who would be met with police force and arrests. And while the police force had yet to cease, the use of tear gas had come to a halt since the mayor's ban. In the weeks leading up to the election, much of the city's downtown core was boarded up, businesses feared of broken windows at the local level, an unpopular mayor and police commissioner was set up for reelection, with many constituents divided over whether or not to vote for his self-described everyday Antifa opponent Sarah Jannarone. And a community LED writing campaign for don't shoot Portland founder Teresa Rayford, who came in third in the primaries. This and other key Council races had many on edge for the future of the city. On top of that, the decidedly Blue Portland, which had just seen a fatal clash of Trump caravans and BLM protesters, waited to see if the 45th president, who just occupied the city, would occupy the seat for four more years. Wheeler eat out a win against his opponents, receiving less than the combined votes of Yanna Ron and the Rydens, but enough to secure his seat again, to the lament of many activists Trump lost to Biden's protests ensued. Later that November, yet another tear gas related suit was filed, this time by inmates of the Justice Center. While the use of gas had come to a halt, their class action suit turned its finger at the Multnomah County Sheriff's Office, alleging that from the first day of the protests, those caged at the Justice Center were left to suffer as gas from the outside seeped into their cells. More than 300 inmates joined in the suit. Many of them had yet to be convicted and were awaiting trial. The suit described a number of alleged incidents of inmates coughing, wheezing and kneeling over in agony in the weeks of protest. They were stuck in their cells, and some repeated a familiar refrain, one that sparked global uprisings. I can't breathe. Tear gas continues to be a tool used by most urban police departments across the country. The nightly chemical warfare that police enacted on Portland streets, along with other munitions, turned the city both into a battlefield and a testing ground. The true mental, physical, and environmental effects of the gassing may not be realized for years to come, but from Portland to Hong Kong, one thing remains clear. While protest tactics may adapt over the years, the response of governments remains largely the same. Suppress and silence dissent. Portlanders continued to push back, imperfectly but with more skill. Some broke windows, while others simply claim their streets, grabbed a bullhorn for the first time and demanded to all who could hear that without justice there would be no peace. From optics to effectiveness, some on the so-called left were split on which roads best aided in the liberation of black lives. And while diversity of tactics got sticky at times, many will argue that the norm most protesters rail against is more insufferable. We quoted Malcolm X at the beginning of this episode. One of the most popular phrases he's known for is by any means necessary. As we reflect on the lessons of the ongoing movement for black lives and the months of protests that took over, Portland will leave you with a more full version of that quote he gave during a speech at the founding of the organization of Afro American Unity in 1964. We declare our right on this Earth to be a human being, to be respected as a human being, to be given the rights of a human being in this society, on this earth, in this day, which we intend to bring into existence by any means necessary. Last episode, you may remember us speaking with Juniper Simonis about chemical munitions used by the feds and local law enforcement during the 2020 protest. We wanted to offer a correction about some of the statements issued during that last episode. Juniper simonis is in fact Doctor Juniper simonis with 15 years under their belt as a quantitative conservation biologist. And the research we said they helped lead with chemical weapons research conservatorium on hexachloroethane gas or HC gas. They didn't so much as help lead, but in fact spearheaded the effort with the assistance of some volunteers. There's in fact a wide-ranging array of research and science regarding HC gas and tear gas out in the world, some dating back decades. But even today, researchers continue to unearth more understanding about what the real impacts of these chemicals are on humans, animals and wildlife, and the environment at large. Another thing is scientists are sort of constant skeptics so when we say that no definitive links have been drawn. When it comes to research. Especially in the world of science, it's almost an oxymoronic statement. Everything can be challenged to gain better understandings of the floating rock we live on and everything else beyond it. What we do know for sure is that the countless munitions unleashed on Portland left scores of protesters ailing. As scientists continue to unearth new research on these chemicals, the uprising team would like to offer our apology for the errors reported in that last episode. Word the grand pops it couldn't fathom the Obama says I don't hate America just to me and she keeps her promises 20 teens looking like the 60s. It's crazy a nationwide deja vu what more people post to do go to schools named after the Klan founder were around town is I don't see why we frowning Native American students forced to learn about when opera Sera how is that fair, bro? Some heroes unsung in some monsters get monuments built for them but they be all a little bit. Monster, we crook it. I'm Jake Halpern's, host of deep cover. Our new season is about a lawyer who helped the mob run Chicago. He bribed judges and even helped a hit man walk free until one day when he started talking with the FBI and promised that he could take the mob down. 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