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Every scandal begins with a lie. But the truth will come out. And then comes the fallout and the outrage.
Scandals have shaped America since its founding. From business and politics to sports and society, we look on aghast as corruption, deceit and ambition bring down heroes and celebrities, politicians and moguls. And when the dust finally settles, we’re left to wonder: how did this happen? Where did they trip up, and who is to blame? From the creators of American History Tellers, Business Wars and Tides of History comes American Scandal, where we take you deep into the heart of America’s dark side to look at what drives someone to break the rules and what happens when they’re caught. Hosted by Lindsay Graham.
Tue, 25 Sep 2018 07:05
A syringe with a mysterious substance sets off a race to save the Olympics from a doping scandal. Backstabbing, recriminations and a dedicated team of investigators threaten to destroy everything Victor Conte has created. And agent Novitzky plants an undercover agent to try to bring down Barry Bonds.
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It's June 3rd, 2003. Its 84 degrees in Colorado Springs, but the temperature just went up at the offices of the U.S. ADA, the United States Anti Doping Agency. Rich Wannager, their spokesman, has just taken a call from elite track coach Trevor Graham and Graham is selling out Victor County. I'm telling you they're all juicing. That's why they're winning and all of them are his clients. I'm sorry sir, who are we talking about? The guy who's at all the track needs carrying his little black bag, Victor County from Boko. Sir, we need more than allegations if we're going to do anything. We need actual evidence that athletes are doping. Well, tomorrow morning you'll receive a package. The rest is up to you. What happened? Just three years ago, Graham attended County's steroids summit. It was smiles all around as they pledged to work together to create the world's fastest man. Well, a lock and change went ego's collide. Just two days after Graham calls the U.S. ADA, County decides to contact them too, completely unaware that Graham has gotten there first. County tells him Graham is giving his athletes oral test airstream and urged them to perform tests. But at the time, County is composing his letter, the U.S. ADA has already received Graham's package. It contains a syringe with residue of an unknown substance and it's sent the U.S. ADA into a panic. The U.S. track championships are just a few days away. What if some of the athletes are using this drug? They don't even know what it is. How can they possibly test for it? Back in the Balco office, Victor County changes his mind. He decides not to send the letter after all. He tosses it in the trash, which goes into the dumpster, where IRS agent in dedicated dumpster diver Jeff Novitsky is going to find it. It will confirm that agent Novitsky has been right all along. It will confirm that he does have a case. 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Audible.com This is the third episode in our five part series on a scandal that rocked the world of sports to the core. In our last episode, Baco founder Victor Conti has snagged his biggest client yet, Barry Bonds. Bonds has finally decided to start taking steroids and the transformation is astonishing. But the more attention Conti gets, the more determined special agent Jeff Novitsky is to bring him down. This is episode three, syringes and secrets. It starts out with such promise. In December of 2001, Victor Conti and Trevor Graham team up with two other juicing experts vowing to create the fastest man in the world. They call it project world record, and it signals their high hopes for a fruitful collaboration. And they will create the world's fastest man, just not in the way they planned. 8 weeks after selecting sprinter Tim Montgomery as their subject, Montgomery has packed on 28 pounds of muscle. Remember, his nickname was Tiny Tim. Now, that nickname and his clothes no longer fit. He's increased his body weight by nearly 20% in just two months. It's an astonishing transformation. Conti has put Montgomery on a cycle of performance and answers including human growth hormone and his signature steroid, the clear. The results speak for themselves. Keep an eye on Tim Montgomery. Montgomery in this race is in lane six. One, the national championships look good. Clean start the men's 100. Bring in lane four, not most of the set up. There you see Tim Montgomery trying to match strides with a minute's green. Montgomery will go for a second, but clearly runs a very fine race. In June of 2001, Montgomery runs 100 meters in under 10 seconds. One of his best times ever. He's not the fastest man on the world yet, but he's well on his way. But not long after the race, he received a letter from the US Anti Doping Agency. He sends a copy to Conti and insists he reads it immediately. Conti's heart pounds as he reads the first paragraph. The United States Anti Doping Agency collected the following samples from you. Sample number 555143 on June 24th at the USA Outdoor Track and Field Championships in Eugene, Oregon. Conti takes a deep breath and studies himself. If Montgomery is busted, that means the authorities are on to him and all of his clients will test dirty. His entire Doping Empire could come crashing down. He continues reading, we are pleased to inform you that the reported results do not indicate the presence of any prohibited substance and or method. He gives a whoop of relief and celebration. He calls Montgomery to congratulate him and to remind him to wear his ZMA hat and t shirt wherever he goes. Promotion is a 24.7 job. Conti has created the ZMA Track Club, consisting of Montgomery and a few other elite athletes. They wear their ZMA Track Club uniforms to meets and give interviews touting ZMA's benefits. In exchange, Conti gives them, well, Montgomery just test you clean. So no need to talk about that. But Conti does talk too much. He longs to get recognition for his work. To be fair, he does deserve credit. He goes to great lengths for Montgomery, even getting a psychiatrist to write a prescription for a female fertility drug that will mask signs of steroid use. He takes the precaution of having the prescription written under a woman's name. But other than that, he's surprisingly indiscreet. When Montgomery hangs out at the Boko office, he hears Conti bragging on the phone about his illicit business. Rather than staying in the shadows like he should, Conti longs for the spotlight. Still, Montgomery's getting amazing results, so he keeps his mouth shut. In July of 2001, he runs the third fastest 100 meters in history in his rank number two in the world. A year ago, he wasn't even in the top five. Springer Marion Jones is also breaking records. By the end of the season, she's ranked number one in the world in both the 100 and 200 meters. Her marriage, however, is stumbling. Her husband's failed drug tests put a strain on things, and now she suspects he's having an affair. They separate, and she spends more time with Montgomery. The press picks it up and starts calling them the world's fastest couple. Marion's marriage isn't the only thing falling apart. Her relationship with Conti is starting to sour too. First, they fight over money. He claims she owes him $25,000. She claims he said he'd forgive the debt if she wore his team's EMA uniform to the US championships. But it's not just about money. Both she and Montgomery have grown increasingly uncomfortable with Conti's boasting and self promotion. The last thing they want is for the spotlight trained on Conti to turn towards them. So they dump him, leaving him angry and bitter. It also puts a strain on Conti's relationship with Montgomery's coach Trevor Graham. They were supposed to be working together on project world record. Now it's followed apart. But Conti doesn't give up. He vows he'll still create the fastest man in the world. But it won't be Tim Montgomery. Dwayne Chambers is a 23 year old runner from London. He had great promise as a teenager. Five years earlier, he ran the 100 meters and 10.06 seconds becoming the youngest junior champion in history. At age 22, he narrowly missed winning a bronze medal at the Sydney Olympics. But since then, he hasn't fulfilled his promise. He's fallen back in the rankings and is constantly outrun by Maurice Green, a rising American track star. He's ready to quit when Conti convinces him to move to California and take one last shot. Chambers leaves London and moves to Berlin game. A few miles from Balco headquarters. By the spring of 2002, Conti has him taking more than 50 supplements a day, or as Conti terms it, the full in Chalada. In late June, Chambers competes at the Bislip Games in Norway. His main rivals are Tim Montgomery, Conti's former client. And Maurice Green, the American sprinter, who's been regularly beating Chambers, and won three gold medals in the 1999 World Championships. Chambers smokes them both, taking first place. Two days later, he does it again in England. On August 7th, he's such a record in the 100 meters at the European Championships. 9.96 seconds. By September, he's hammered Green into submission, beating him five out of six times. His only remaining rival is Tim Montgomery. It's September 14th, 2002. Conti's former creation is about to face off against his current one, at the Grand Prix Final in a pair. From doing Chambers, was it Tim Montgomery? Chambers now gets into his stride when Montgomery leading the moment. Chambers trying to back at him, he's not going to get there. Montgomery's going to take this one, Montgomery wins it by gotten me to going away in the time. 9.78 of Confirm is a world record. Dwayne Chambers is in peak form. He runs the fastest race of his life and ties the European record of 9.87 seconds. But Tim Montgomery is even faster. He sets a new record of 9.78 seconds. It's a bitter pill for Victor Conti to swallow. Two years ago, he convened Project World Record and vowed to make Tim Montgomery the fastest man in the world. Now, Tim Montgomery has done it, without him. Trevor Graham, Montgomery's coach, tries to take credit for the win. He rushes onto the field and hoist Montgomery into the air. But Montgomery will have none of it. He tells Graham the credit belongs to Charlie Francis, the Canadian coach, doping expert, and another former member of the steroids summit. It's such an ugly moment that Graham literally drops Montgomery, causing him to fall and twist his ankle. He snares, I hope, to pass a drug test. Montgomery does pass a drug test and his record stands. But Conti's not standing for it. He vows to continue to create champions. He finds a promising sprinter he thinks could unseat Marion Jones. He also takes a shot plur whose career is in decline and rockets him to number two in the world. But by now, late in the summer of 2002, Conti has attracted attention. And it's not the kind he's been hoping for. He doesn't know it. But agent Jeff Navitsky and his team have BALCO under surveillance. The sides going through BALCO's trash, they're monitoring the office to see who comes and goes. They see Greg Anderson, Barry Bond's trainer, make a quick visit before heading to Pac Bell Park, where the giants are playing the Dodgers. Two hours later, he's back at BALCO. Over the past few years, law enforcement has received tips that Anderson is dealing steroids out of world gym. But they haven't pursued it. Steroids are a low priority drug offense. Jeff Navitsky is changing that. His team even tails Conti. An undercover agent follows him into a bank and watches as he withdraws $2,000 in cash. Navitsky gets a subpoena for BALCO's bank records. In the past nine months, Conti has withdrawn $480,000 in cash. What kind of business deals in that much cash? Not a legitimate one. That's for sure. And thanks to Navitsky's diligent dumpster diving, he now has papers with Anderson's name on them, and a trove of empty pill bottles and vials, some of which contain residue of drugs. But what drugs are they? It's a medical mystery that's beyond the capabilities most local labs. Luckily, the top lab in the country is only a few hours away. The UCLA Olympic Analytical Laboratory The UCLA Olympic Analytical Laboratory is a low white building on a quiet street, three miles from the campus. The parking lot is surrounded by a chain link fence topped with razor wire. It's got one of those multicolored square signs in the window, reading 442R, code for firefighters that there are hazardous materials inside. Otherwise, from the outside, there's nothing remarkable about it. What is remarkable is what's inside. A 10,000 square foot maze packed with high tech machinery. It puts Victor Conti's ICP machine to shame. Their entire room is dedicated to detecting a single drug. They test 30,000 samples every year. Prezyding over it all is Dr. Don Catlin. A tall, professorial man with gray hair and deep set eyes, he never intended to do this job. When he was in medical school in the 60s, jobs like this didn't exist. He started his career working with Vietnam veterans who were addicted to heroin and came to UCLA in 1972 to set up the Clinical Pharmacology Department. In 1984, he was asked to take on a very important task. Los Angeles was chosen to host the Summer Olympics, and Olympic officials wanted to set up a state of the art drug testing lab and they wanted Catlin to run it. Catlin assumed it would be a summer job, but doping turned out to be more widespread than anyone had imagined. Within two decades, the lab was also doing testing for the NFL, the NCAA, Major League Baseball and the Department of Defense, and Dr. Catlin was being referred to as the father of drug testing in sports. So if you've got a bunch of bottles with traces of mysterious drugs in them, who are you going to call? He won't know it right away, but calling this lab is the smartest move Jeff Nabitsky will make in his entire investigation. Unfortunately for Jeff Nabitsky, the phrase, there's an agent from the IRS on the phone and he wants to talk to you, strikes fear in the hearts of even the most honest men. So Catlin tells his secretary to take a message. But when he finally speaks to Nabitsky, he's intrigued. The agent won't tell him the name of the lab or the athletes involved, but he's used to that, all the testing they do is anonymous. Athletes are identified only by a number to avoid any possibility of fraud or favoritism. But this is the first time he's been contacted by law enforcement. Until now, doping has been handled as an internal affair, something that sports organizations police themselves. But if this is a criminal investigation, and by the feds, no less, he figures it must be serious, and it is serious. And Catlin is about to become the middleman in the most important investigation in the history of sports. What if your family was the victim of a home invasion or you woke up in the morgue or you were seriously injured miles from help? What would you do? This is actually happening, asks our listeners this very question, while we bring you captivating real life stories of trauma and perseverance. This is actually happening brings listeners extraordinary true stories from the people who lived them. You'll hear stories about conflict, turmoil, or threats that dramatically alter the course of someone's life. Each episode is an exploration of the human spirit, and how survivors manage to overcome hardship and move on with their lives, even thriving afterward. The new season of this is actually happening is available ad free only with Wondry Plus. And if this new season isn't enough, you can listen to more than 120 exclusive episodes available only to Wondry Plus subscribers. Join Wondry Plus on Apple Podcasts or on the Wondry app. If you're into true crime, the Generation Y podcast is essential listening. We started this podcast over 10 years ago to dissect some of the craziest and most notable murders, crimes, and conspiracy theories together, and we'd love for you to join us. Generation Y is one of the longest running true crime podcasts out there, and we are still at it, unraveling a new case every week. We break down infamous cases like the Evil Genius Bank robbery, and lesser known cases like the case of Kimberly Rico. Did she actually kill her husband after they took part in a murder mystery game? We cover every angle, breaking down theories, diving deep into forensic evidence, and interviewing those close to the case. And with over 450 episodes, there's a little something for every true crime listener. Follow the Generation Y podcast on Amazon Music or every listen to podcasts, or you can listen ad free by joining Wondry Plus in the Wondry app. Before 2002, Dr. Katlin's job was pretty straightforward. His UCLA lab would test athletes blood and urine samples for known drugs like human growth hormone and phedomines, or various steroids. All of that changes when they receive a urine sample the test clean, but still shows abnormalities associated with steroids use. The athlete in question is a cyclist named Tammy Thomas. She stands five foot seven, and she's 157 pounds of pure muscle. She has a deep voice and facial hair, and in mid she gets mistaken for a man several times a week. And she was busted for steroids in 2000, so Katlin and his team have reason to be suspicious. They set to work, and eventually find she's using a drug that was developed in the 60s but never marketed. This is where we turn back to the rogue chemist, Patrick Arnold. Tammy is a client, and she's using Norbalethone, aka the clear. It's a major discovery, because this is the first time a totally unknown drug is detected. It shows how sophisticated doping has become, and it's a sobering reminder to Katlin of what he's up against. Perhaps because of her steroid use, Tammy Thomas is known for having a volatile temper. When she's busted in ban for using the clear after Katlin reports his findings, he is advised to hire extra security and buy a bulletproof vest. But Tammy takes the high road. She accepts the ban, and reminds reporters, I'm not an ax murderer, I'm an athlete. So you could say it's all in a day's work when Dr. Katlin begins to help agent Navitsky. At first, he just helps Navitsky pronounce the names of the drugs, listed on the papers he's found in Bacos dumpster. But he quickly realizes that the target of this investigation, Victor Conti, is running a very sophisticated operation. Navitsky and Katlin touch base every few weeks, as Katlin continues to identify samples and explain what they're used for. By June of 2003, they've been talking for several months, and have built up a good rapport. He's impressed by this cop, who goes out alone at nights and digs through dumpsters. What's driving him? Why does he care so much? Whatever the reasons, he's onto a major league operation. Maybe that's all the motivation he needs. But the passion in Navitsky's voice, when he talks about bringing down the cheaters, makes Katlin think there's something more. Maybe not a vendetta, but at the very least, an obsession. On June 6, Dr. Katlin gets a call from Terry Madden, head of the United States Anti Doping Agency. The normally mild man in Madden is unnerved. They've received the package Trevor Graham sent, and promised would prove Conti's guilt. It's a syringe, with a bit of residue in it. Graham says he pulled it out of a trash can at a track meet. It's the first time his agency has received a tip that includes physical evidence, and Graham claims it can be traced back to Victor Conti. So Madden overnights the syringe back across the country to Katlin, who is confident he can identify the drug. Except, he can't. The scientists are stumped. Whatever's in that syringe, it's not a known substance. They dub it, compound X. Katlin relays the news to Madden, who is not happy to hear it. He insists that Katlin drop whatever else he's doing, and make identifying this drug his top priority. There's an urgency. The U.S. track championships are in three days. They need to identify this drug and develop a test for it. Otherwise, athletes could win medals that would have to be revoked down the line. It's the kind of scandal they desperately want to avoid. Late in 2002, Conti gets a tip that the clear has been identified by a lab at UCLA. Whether there's a spy in Dr. Katlin's lab isn't known, but he's relieved to learn that Tammy Thomas was using an older version of the clear. Patrick Arnold has recently altered the formula. It's not the mystery drug currently at the lab. Conti and his clients remain one step ahead for the moment. The authorities are close on their heels, but Conti isn't concerned. He's having a very good year, and so is his star client, Barry Bonds. Bonds helps lead the giants to the world series. On an all star tour of Japan, he becomes friendly with Yankee First Baseman Jason Giambi. Giambi is an experienced juicer, and Bonds brings him into the Balco fold. It's another feather in Conti's CMA cap, but the more Conti promotes himself and his famous clients, the more determined Jeff Newitsky becomes to bring all of them down. Newitsky's convinced Bonds is juicing, and he knows he's getting his drug from Greg Anderson and Victor Conti. There's not a shred of doubt in his mind, but he still doesn't have enough concrete evidence. So he hatches a plan. He'll send an undercover agent into World Gym to become friendly with Anderson, and from there, make contact with Bonds. He chooses an officer from the California Bureau of Narcotics Enforcement, named Iran White. At first, White seems like a good choice. He's tough, muscular, and a veteran of undercover operations. They've worked together on past cases and bonded over a common interest in sports. With that bond, it's about to be stretched to the breaking point. And so is Iran White. At first, things go according to plan. White joins the gym where Anderson trains his clients and starts working out next to him. After a few weeks, they chat, and White mentions he's looking for a trainer. Anderson sizes up White and warns him that his workouts are brutal. If you're just looking to get abs in time for swim suit season, he's not your guy. At 46, White's no spring chicken, but he convinces Anderson that he's serious and committed. One big difference between Victor Conti and Greg Anderson is that Anderson is a straightforward guy. He's not glib, and he doesn't change his pitch depending on who he's talking to. If he says his workouts are brutal, you best believe him. He puts White on a program similar to Bonds, high weights, very slow reps, lots of very slow reps. Some days, just walking across the parking lot after his workout feels like scaling a mountain. But as far as undercover operations go, at least this one is safe and healthy. Soon, he looks great and is in the best shape he's been in for years. Barry Bonds continues to transform himself as well. Everything about him gets bigger, including his head. That's true both figuratively and literally. Using human growth hormone can actually cause a person's head to become enlarged. Conti and Bonds trainer Greg Anderson have put together a customized program for him. They know exactly when a drug should be taken and in what dosage. What drugs should and shouldn't be combined, when to go off them, both for health reasons and to avoid detection. But Barry Bonds believes Barry knows best. At the end of a steroid cycle, he can feel himself lagging, and he and the fans can see the difference when he's not hitting Bonds as far. The pressure to perform is real and Bonds demands more drugs. When Anderson tells him he's not ready for another steroid cycle, Bonds replies, fuck off. I'll do it myself. I ran white on the other hand, does exactly what Greg Anderson tells him. He's not taking any band substances, but he's working out like a madman, building his muscles and building their friendship. Whenever he can, he steers a conversation to sports, and he makes it clear he's a huge Barry Bonds fan. Finally, as a working out one afternoon in May of 2003, it pays off. Good workout, Iron. See you Wednesday. Oh God, okay. Just one more thing. What's that? A wheelchair to roll me out to my car because I can't move my damn legs. Yeah, nobody likes leg day, but you're doing great, man. Hey, you want to catch a giant, Scamson? Sure. I'm down. We'll go by the clubhouse first. I'll introduce you to Barry. Oh, man. Really? Still need that wheelchair? No, man. I'm walking on air, brother. White excitedly calls Navitsky and tells him the news. Navitsky is ecstatic. Now, if they can get directly to Bonds, maybe even have white wear a wire, his head spins with the possibilities. He'll finally be able to bring that sleazy cheater down. White doesn't say anything, but he's a bit uncomfortable with Navitsky's rabid enthusiasm. He's always thought their target was Victor Conti. Navitsky seems to be on a personal crusade to get Barry Bonds. And White is actually a Barry Bonds fan. White waits for Anderson to schedule a visit to the Giant's Clubhouse. In the meantime, he keeps up his workouts, pushes himself even harder. After one particularly brutal session, White drags himself home and flops onto his bed. An hour later, he has a stroke. Iran White survives his stroke, but it's the end of the undercover operation. He's not going to meet Barry Bonds. And in a particularly bitter irony, his doctors prescribe a testosterone cream to aid in his recovery. The same kind of cream, Victor Conti gives to his clients. Lying immobilized in a hospital bed, he has way too much time to think and brood. He has just had a stroke, trying to bring down an operation that's using the same drugs his doctor just gave him. Does that make any sense? He starts to question the entire operation. He also questions his relationship with Jeff Navitsky. His recovery takes months, and Navitsky never even calls him, not even visits. White, who is African American, also wonders why Bonds is the subject of Navitsky's wrath. When White players, like Roger Clemens and Jason Chiami, seem to get a pass. Meanwhile, Agent Navitsky remains undeterred. He continues to check in every few weeks with Dr. Catlin and the UCLA Olympic Analytical Lab. He keeps up surveillance on Conti and some of his clients, and he keeps going through Baco's trash. On the night of June 9, 2003, he finds Conti's unsent letter to the US ADA, outing Trevor Graham as a steroid dealer, enaming the athletes he's giving them to. Navitsky still has no idea that Graham has sent a syringe to the US ADA, or that Dr. Catlin and his crew are frantically working to identify the substance it contains. Catlin's under instructions to maintain strict confidentiality. Catlin's team is using the newest and the oldest technology to discover what Compound X really is. Tests on a mass spectrometer give a readout of the substance fingerprint. They know that it's complex, containing multiple compounds. From the spectrometer, they go low tech, using pencil and paper to sketch out their best guesses of the molecular structure. It's the scientific equivalent of doing a composite sketch of a suspect. You might not get an exact match right away, but it narrows things down. Once they've sketched out a formula, they test it by attempting to synthesize that compound. Then they'll go back to the spectrometer and test the compound they just created against what was in the syringe. If the chemical fingerprints are the same, they've got a match. In the meantime, Terry Madden, the head of the US ADA, is losing it. Back in June, they took urine samples from 350 athletes at the Track and Field Nationals at Stanford. Trevor Graham had called the next day, claiming he saw Kanti at the meat with his little black bag, handing out steroids. Madden has ordered the samples held and testing postponed until Compound X is identified. If any of the athletes at Stanford were using it, he wants to know. But the delay is unusual. And USA Track and Field officials keep calling, demanding to know why they haven't received test results. Madden doesn't want to tell them what's going on. A leak could tip off Kanti, so he keeps his mouth shut and keeps up the pressure on Katlyn. On July 18th, at 11.45 am, Katlyn sends an email to Madden. The email contains just one word. Jeff Nabisky likes to think of himself as a buy the book kind of guy. But sometimes, you forget what's in the book and it comes back to haunt you. Like how he do his trash recon. Step 1. Snatch the bags from Balco's dumpster. Step 2. Drive to the parking lot of a nearby office building. Step 3. Sort through it with a keen eye for detail. Step 4. Catalog it all and keep anything interesting. Final Step. Toss the rest in the nearest trash bin. No. According to the book, the final step is return all items without evidentiary value to the location from which it was retrieved. But trash is trash. Who cares which dumpster it goes into? Kant pierce cares. He's the owner of that nearby office building. One afternoon, he takes out his trash and finds his dumpster overflowing. That's strange because normally it isn't even half full. He looks at the contents, empty FedEx boxes and envelopes. Some of them are marked caution hazardous medical waste. All of the boxes and envelopes are addressed to Balco, which is right down the road. So he pays them a visit. When his secretary shows him in, Kanti thinks pierce might be a journalist wanting to do a profile on Balco. He smiles and turns on the charm. Very nice of you to drop by, Mr. Pierce. Would you like a tour of our facility? Yes. You can show me where you put your damn trash. I'd beg your pardon. I found this in my dumpster, Mr. Kanti, which is overflowing. Look at this label. Hazardous medical waste? No, no. Nothing dangerous was in those boxes. The label is just a formality. But why is your trash in my dumpster? Now that I don't know. We've got our own dumpster right out back. Is that a picture of you with Barry Bonds? Yeah, he's a client of ours. Wow. So is he a total jerk like people say? No. Nice guy in the world. Kanti makes small talk, but his mind is racing. Someone's going through his trash, and he hasn't been careful at all. He doesn't shred documents or remove labels. Now he vows to be more cautious, but it's too late. Novitsky has already found plenty of evidence, including documents showing Barry Bonds is a client. But this is actually the least of Kanti's problems. Back at the USADA, Terry Madden has just received Dr. Katlin's one word email. That word is bingo. Madden immediately calls Katlin who confirms they've identified compound X. It's a brand new steroid with a name 19 letters long. They call it THG for short. Katlin and his staff quickly develop a test, and they're finally able to analyze the 350 samples from the track and field nationals. Four athletes test positive, three of them are Baco clients. Madden dubs the operation project bingo and flies to New York to meet with the leaders of the International Association of Athletics Federations. Founded in 1912, the IAAF is the governing body for track and field. Madden asks them to keep the discovery quiet and quickly do some unannounced testing. The IAAF officials agree. On August 1, testers interrupt Dwayne Chambers while he's having breakfast at a hotel in Germany. Chambers is unconcerned. After all, Kanti has assured him this new version of the clear is undetectable. But this time, Kanti is wrong. The IAAF doesn't reveal the results immediately. They don't want to tip off other athletes who might be using THG2. But when they do announce the results, Chambers career will be over. And it all started with a syringe, fished out of a trash can and a relationship that turned ugly. Newsweek will later call it one of the decades top 10 history altering decisions. The U.S. A.D.A. continues testing and investigating athletes. Nabitsky continues his periodic chats with Dr. Katlin. Surprisingly, Katlin never mentions Madden to him. Perhaps this brilliant scientist who can sketch out the molecular structure of an unknown compound has problems seeing the obvious. Or maybe he's just being extremely cautious. But finally, on a Friday afternoon in early August, he decides to call Madden at the U.S. A.D.A. and tell him what's going on. When Katlin tells him the feds are investigating a lab in the Bay Area, Madden is confused. He thinks there must be two rogue labs operating. What he quickly realizes that the lab under investigation is Balco, and that he needs to talk to Agent Navitsky as soon as possible. On August 19, Navitsky and a counting narcotics agent fly to Colorado Springs to meet with Madden and top executives at the U.S. A.D.A. Nabitsky arrives with the subpoena, demanding the U.S. A.D.A. turnover everything they have related to Balco and Olympic athletes. Madden is thrilled to receive it. Having the feds behind them gives Operation Bingo added clout. Up until now, the U.S. A.D.A. has been looked at with disdain by most athletes. They consider it a useless agency, trying to bust athletes for taking things like cold medicine. But that's about to change. Nabitsky is also thrilled to see his case expand. Despite their opposing views on performance enhancing drugs, perhaps he's not so different from Victor Conti after all. He likes being at the center of all the action, pulling the levers of power. But right now, he has a problem. The pressure has mounted, and the IAAF will have to release the results of the test of the track and field athletes. That means telling the world about THG. More importantly, it means Victor Conti will know they're onto him. Nabitsky has been meticulously building his case, gathering evidence and preparing for a raid on Balco when the time is right. But now, the raid has to be moved up. Nabitsky is not ready, but he doesn't have a choice. From Wondry, this is episode three of six of Balco for American Scandal. On the next episode, the raid on Balco sets off a firestorm that goes all the way to the White House, hitting the Attorney General against a powerful senator. Meanwhile, athletes are promised immunity, and a mole exposes secrets, laying bare how deeply sports has been corrupted. If you'd like to learn more about Doping and Sports in Balco, we recommend the book Game of Shadows, Barry Bonds, Balco, and the steroids scandal that rocked professional sports by Mark Fennaro Wada and Lance Williams. This episode contains reenactments and traumatized details, and while in most cases we can't know exactly what was said, all our dramatizations are based on historical research. American Scandal is hosted, edited, executed, produced, and sound designed by me, Lindsey Graham for Airship. This episode is written by Steve Chivers. Our consultants are Mark Fennaro Wada and Lance Williams. Execute producers are Stephanie Jens, Marsha Louis, and her nonmobez for Wondry.